Learn About Bladder Stones

What is the definition of Bladder Stones?

Bladder stones are hard buildups of minerals. These form in the urinary bladder.

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What are the alternative names for Bladder Stones?

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi

What are the causes of Bladder Stones?

Bladder stones are most often caused by another urinary system problem, such as:

  • Bladder diverticulum
  • Blockage at the base of the bladder
  • Enlarged prostate (BPH)
  • Neurogenic bladder
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • Foreign objects in the bladder

Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder stones are much less common than kidney stones.

Bladder stones may occur when urine in the bladder is concentrated. Materials in the urine form crystals. These may also result from foreign objects in the bladder.

What are the symptoms of Bladder Stones?

Symptoms occur when the stone irritates the lining of the bladder. The stones may also block the flow of urine from the bladder.

Symptoms can include:

  • Abdominal pain, pressure
  • Abnormally colored or dark-colored urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Inability to urinate except in certain positions
  • Interruption of the urine stream
  • Pain, discomfort in the penis
  • Signs of UTI (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need to urinate often)

Loss of urine control may also occur with bladder stones.

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What are the current treatments for Bladder Stones?

You may be able to help small stones pass on their own. Drinking 6 to 8 glasses of water or more per day will increase urination.

Your provider may remove stones that do not pass using a cystoscope. A small telescope will be passed through the urethra into the bladder. A laser or other device will be used to break up the stones and the pieces will be removed. Some stones may need to be removed using open surgery.

Drugs are rarely used to dissolve the stones.

Causes of bladder stones should be treated. Most commonly, bladder stones are seen with BPH or blockage at the base of the bladder. You may need surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate or to repair the bladder.

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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Bladder Stones?

Most bladder stones pass on their own or can be removed. They do not cause permanent damage to the bladder. They may come back if the cause is not corrected.

Left untreated, stones may cause repeated UTIs. This can also cause permanent damage to the bladder or kidneys.

When should I contact a medical professional for Bladder Stones?

Contact your provider if you have symptoms of bladder stones.

How do I prevent Bladder Stones?

Prompt treatment of a UTI or other urinary tract conditions may help prevent bladder stones.

Female urinary tract
Male urinary tract
What are the latest Bladder Stones Clinical Trials?
A Multicenter, Single-blind, Observational Clinical Trial of URISAFE

Summary: The primary objective of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of Human Multigene Methylation Detection Kit (Fluorescent PCR Method) for help diagnose bladder cancer by comparing with clinical standard method (includes medical imaging (MRI, CT, etc.), cystoscopy, pathological examination).

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Holmium Laser Xpeeda Vaporesection Versus Greenlight XPS Vaporization of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Obstruction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

Summary: Bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem, which impact patients' quality of life. It may lead to serious outcomes, including urinary tract infection, hematuria, bladder stones, urinary retention, hydronephrosis, and rarely renal insufficiency. Introduction of the Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) represented ...

What are the Latest Advances for Bladder Stones?
Long-term outcomes of Blocksom vesicostomy for elderly patients with chronic urinary retention.
Prospective comparison of tadalafil 5 mg alone, silodosin 8 mg alone, and the combination of both in treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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Do men with bladder stones benefit from treatment of benign prostatic obstruction?
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: April 10, 2022
Published By: Kelly L. Stratton, MD, FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Ganpule AP, Desai MR. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 95.

Germann CA. Urologic disorders. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 85.