Bladder stones are hard buildups of minerals. These form in the urinary bladder.
Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi
Bladder stones are most often caused by another urinary system problem, such as:
Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder stones are much less common than kidney stones.
Bladder stones may occur when urine in the bladder is concentrated. Materials in the urine form crystals. These may also result from foreign objects in the bladder.
Symptoms occur when the stone irritates the lining of the bladder. The stones may also block the flow of urine from the bladder.
Symptoms can include:
Loss of urine control may also occur with bladder stones.
You may be able to help small stones pass on their own. Drinking 6 to 8 glasses of water or more per day will increase urination.
Your provider may remove stones that do not pass using a cystoscope. A small telescope will be passed through the urethra into the bladder. A laser or other device will be used to break up the stones and the pieces will be removed. Some stones may need to be removed using open surgery.
Drugs are rarely used to dissolve the stones.
Causes of bladder stones should be treated. Most commonly, bladder stones are seen with BPH or blockage at the base of the bladder. You may need surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate or to repair the bladder.
Most bladder stones pass on their own or can be removed. They do not cause permanent damage to the bladder. They may come back if the cause is not corrected.
Left untreated, stones may cause repeated UTIs. This can also cause permanent damage to the bladder or kidneys.
Contact your provider if you have symptoms of bladder stones.
Prompt treatment of a UTI or other urinary tract conditions may help prevent bladder stones.
Published Date: April 10, 2022
Published By: Kelly L. Stratton, MD, FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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Germann CA. Urologic disorders. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 85.