Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is a condition that affects development before birth, particularly of structures in the face and neck. Its characteristic features include skin anomalies on the neck, malformations of the eyes and ears, and distinctive facial features.
Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is caused by mutations in the TFAP2A gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called transcription factor AP-2 alpha (AP-2α). As its name suggests, this protein is a transcription factor, which means it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. Transcription factor AP-2α regulates genes that are involved in several cellular processes, such as cell division and the self-destruction of cells that are no longer needed (apoptosis). This protein is critical during development before birth, particularly of the branchial arches, which form the structures of the face and neck.
Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is a rare condition, although the prevalence is unknown.
Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.
Published Date: September 01, 2012Published By: National Institutes of Health