Bronchiectasis is a disease in which the large airways in the lungs are damaged. This causes the airways to become permanently wider.
Bronchiectasis can be present at birth or infancy or develop later in life.
Acquired bronchiectasis; Congenital bronchiectasis; Chronic lung disease - bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is often caused by inflammation or infection of the airways that keeps coming back.
Sometimes it begins in childhood after having a severe lung infection or inhaling a foreign object. Breathing in food particles can also lead to this condition.
Other causes of bronchiectasis can include:
Symptoms develop over time. They may occur months or years after the event that causes the bronchiectasis.
Long-term (chronic) cough with large amounts of foul smelling sputum is the main symptom of bronchiectasis. Other symptoms may include:
Treatment is aimed at:
Daily drainage to remove sputum is part of treatment. A respiratory therapist can show the person coughing exercises that will help.
Medicines are often prescribed. These include:
Surgery to remove (resect) the lung may be needed if medicine does not work and the disease is in a small area, or if the person has a lot of bleeding in the lungs. It is more commonly considered if there is no genetic or acquired predisposition to bronchiectasis (for example, more likely to consider if there is bronchiectasis in one segment of the lung only because of prior obstruction).
The outlook depends on the specific cause of the disease. With treatment, most people live without major disability and the disease progresses slowly.
Complications of bronchiectasis may include:
Call your provider if:
You can reduce your risk by promptly treating lung infections.
Childhood vaccines and a yearly flu vaccine help reduce the chance of some infections. Avoiding upper respiratory infections, smoking, and pollution may also reduce your risk of getting this infection.
Chan ED, Iseman MD. Bronchiectasis. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 48.
Chang AB, Redding GJ. Bronchiectasis and chronic suppurative lung disease. In: Wilmott RW, Deterding R, Li A, et al, eds. Kendig's Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 26.
O'Donnell AE. Bronchiectasis, atelectasis, cysts, and localized lung disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 84.