Learn About Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

What is the definition of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is excessive pressure on the median nerve. This is the nerve in the wrist that allows feeling and movement to parts of the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome can lead to numbness, tingling, weakness, or muscle damage in the hand and fingers.

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What are the alternative names for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Median nerve dysfunction; Median nerve entrapment; Median neuropathy

What are the causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?
Compression of the median nerve

The median nerve provides feeling and movement to the thumb side of the hand. This includes the palm, thumb, index finger, middle finger, and thumb side of the ring finger.

The area in your wrist where the nerve enters the hand is called the carpal tunnel. This tunnel is normally narrow. Any swelling can pinch the nerve and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. This is called carpal tunnel syndrome.

Some people who develop carpal tunnel syndrome were born with a small carpal tunnel.

Carpal tunnel syndrome can also be caused by making the same hand and wrist motion over and over. Using hand tools that vibrate may also lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Surface anatomy - normal wrist

Studies have not proved that carpal tunnel is caused by typing on a computer, using a mouse, or repeating movements while working, playing a musical instrument, or playing sports. But, these activities may cause tendinitis or bursitis in the hand, which can narrow the carpal tunnel and lead to symptoms.

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs most often in people ages 30 to 60. It is more common in women than men.

Other factors that may lead to carpal tunnel syndrome include:

  • Alcohol use
  • Bone fractures and arthritis of the wrist
  • Cyst or tumor that grows in the wrist
  • Infections
  • Obesity
  • If your body keeps extra fluids during pregnancy or menopause
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diseases that have abnormal deposits of protein in the body (amyloidosis)
What are the symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Clumsiness of the hand when gripping objects
  • Numbness or tingling in the thumb and next two or three fingers of one or both hands
  • Numbness or tingling of the palm of the hand
  • Pain that extends to the elbow
  • Pain in the wrist or hand in one or both hands
  • Problems with fine finger movements (coordination) in one or both hands
  • Wasting away of the muscle under the thumb (in advanced or long-term cases)
  • Weak grip or difficulty carrying bags (a common complaint)
  • Weakness in one or both hands
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What are the current treatments for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Your provider may suggest the following:

  • Wearing a splint at night for several weeks. If this does not help, you may need to wear the splint during the day as well.
  • Avoid sleeping on your wrists.
  • Placing warm and cold compresses on the affected area.

Changes you can make in your workplace to reduce the stress on your wrist include:

  • Using special devices, such as keyboards, different types of computer mouse, cushioned mouse pads, and keyboard drawers.
  • Having someone review the position you are in when performing your work activities. For example, make sure the keyboard is low enough so that your wrists are not bent upward while typing. Your provider may suggest an occupational therapist.
  • Making changes in your work duties or home and sports activities. Some of the jobs linked with carpal tunnel syndrome include those that involve vibrating tools.


Medicines used to treat carpal tunnel syndrome include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen. Corticosteroid injections given into the carpal tunnel area may relieve symptoms for a period of time.


Carpal tunnel release is a surgical procedure that cuts into the ligament that is pressing on the nerve. Surgery is successful most of the time but depends on how long you've had the nerve compression and its severity.

Carpal tunnel surgical procedure
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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Symptoms often improve without surgery. But more than one half of cases eventually need surgery. Even if surgery is successful, full healing can take months.

What are the possible complications of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

If the condition is treated properly, there are usually no complications. If untreated, the nerve can be damaged, causing permanent weakness, numbness, and tingling.

When should I contact a medical professional for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Contact your provider for an appointment if:

  • You have symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Your symptoms do not respond to regular treatment, such as rest and anti-inflammatory drugs, or if there seems to be a loss of muscle bulk around your fingers
  • Your fingers lose more and more feeling
  • You are dropping things and becoming more clumsy with your hand
How do I prevent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Use tools and equipment that are properly designed to reduce the risk for wrist injury.

Ergonomic aids, such as split keyboards, keyboard trays, typing pads, and wrist braces, may be used to improve wrist posture during typing. Take frequent breaks when typing and always stop if you feel tingling or pain.

Carpal tunnel syndrome
What are the latest Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Clinical Trials?
Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Versus Perineural Platelet Rich Plasma Injection for Treatment of Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

Summary: Aim of the study The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of pulsed radiofrequency versus platelet rich plasma injection in treatment of idiopathic mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome Patients will be classified into three equal groups using randomized closed envelop method into three groups. Control Group ( n=25):Patients will receive median nerve perineural injection of bupivacaine with ...

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Minimally Invasive Carpal Tunnel Decompression Using a Novel Ergonomic Releasing Instrument

Summary: This is a prospective, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the postoperative outcome after carpal tunnel release by using mini CTS releaser and open method with duration of 6 months estimated. The study hypothesis is that mini CTS releaser can offer similar functional outcomes to the open approach and avoid the complications of the open surgery.

What are the Latest Advances for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?
Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon Rupture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome due to Scaphoid Nonunion Advanced Collapse: A Case Report.
Outcomes of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome treatment - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Treatment of Recurrent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with the Abductor Digiti Minimi Flap: A Case Series.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: June 13, 2021
Published By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Weller WJ, Calandruccio JH, Jobe MT. Compressive neuropathies of the hand, forearm, and elbow. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 77.

Zhao M, Burke DT. Median neuropathy (carpal tunnel syndrome). In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 36.