Learn About Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

What is the definition of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a disorder that involves nerve swelling and irritation (inflammation) that leads to a loss of strength or sensation.

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What are the alternative names for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP

What are the causes of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

CIDP is one cause of damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord (peripheral neuropathy). Polyneuropathy means several nerves are involved. CIDP often affects both sides of the body.

CIDP is caused by an abnormal immune response. CIDP occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin cover of the nerves. For this reason, CIDP is thought to be an autoimmune disease.

Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

The specific triggers of CIDP vary. In many cases, the cause cannot be identified.

CIDP may occur with other conditions, such as:

  • Chronic hepatitis
  • Diabetes
  • Infection with the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni
  • Immune system disorders due to cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Cancer of the lymph system
  • Overactive thyroid
  • Side effects of medicines to treat cancer or HIV
What are the symptoms of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Symptoms include any of the following:

  • Problems walking due to weakness or lack of feeling in the feet
  • Trouble using the arms and hands or legs and feet due to weakness
  • Sensation changes, such as numbness or decreased sensation, pain, burning, tingling, or other abnormal sensations (usually affects the feet first, then the arms and hands)

Other symptoms that can occur with CIDP include:

  • Abnormal or uncoordinated movement
  • Problems breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Hoarseness or changing voice or slurred speech
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What are the current treatments for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

The goal of treatment is to reverse the attack on the nerves. In some cases, nerves can heal and their function can be restored. In other cases, nerves are badly damaged and cannot heal, so treatment is aimed at preventing the disease from getting worse.

Which treatment is given depends on how severe the symptoms are, among other things. The most aggressive treatment is only given if you have difficulty walking, breathing, or if symptoms don't allow you to care for yourself or work.

Treatments may include:

  • Corticosteroids to help reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms
  • Other medicines that suppress the immune system (for some severe cases)
  • Plasmapheresis or plasma exchange to remove antibodies from the blood
  • Intravenous immune globulin (IVIg), which involves injecting antibodies into the bloodstream to reduce the effect of the antibodies that are causing the problem
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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

The outcome varies. The disorder may continue long term, or you may have repeated episodes of symptoms. Complete recovery is possible, but permanent loss of nerve function is not uncommon.

What are the possible complications of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Complications of CIDP include:

  • Pain
  • Permanent decrease or loss of sensation in areas of the body
  • Permanent weakness or paralysis in areas of the body
  • Repeated or unnoticed injury to an area of the body
  • Side effects of medicines used to treat the disorder
When should I contact a medical professional for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Call your provider if you have a loss of movement or sensation in any area of the body, especially if your symptoms get worse.

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
What are the latest Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinical Trials?
An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of CT103A Cells for the Treatment of Relapsed/Refractory Antibody-associated Idiopathic Inflammatory Diseases of the Nervous System

Summary: Antibody-mediated idiopathic inflammatory diseases of the nervous system (also known as autoimmune diseases of the nervous system) are autoimmune diseases in which autoimmune cells and immune molecules attack the nervous system as the main pathogenic mechanism. In the immune response, pathogenic antibodies acting on autoantigens of the nervous system are collectively referred to as autoantibodies ...

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Open-label Extension of the ARGX-113-1802 Trial to Investigate the Long-term Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Efgartigimod PH20 SC in Patients With Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

Summary: This is the open-label extension study of phase II ARGX-113-1802 to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the subcutaneous formulation of efgartigimod in adults with CIDP. Patients already stabilized on efgartigimod PH20 SC will also have the opportunity to participate in a sub study to explore less frequent dosing of efgartigimod PH20 SC.

What are the Latest Advances for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and psoriasis comorbidity with significantly alleviated in symptoms after secukinumab: case report.
Rituximab in chronic immune mediated neuropathies: a systematic review.
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Rituximab Responsive Relapsing-Remitting IgG4 Anticontactin 1 Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Associated With Membranous Nephropathy: A Case Description and Brief Review.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: April 25, 2022
Published By: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Katirji B. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, Newman NJ, eds. Bradley and Daroff's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 106.

Smith G, Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 392.