Condition 101 About Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

What is the definition of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a disorder that involves nerve swelling and irritation (inflammation) that leads to a loss of strength or sensation.

What are the alternative names for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP

What are the causes for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

CIDP is one cause of damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord (peripheral neuropathy). Polyneuropathy means several nerves are involved. CIDP often affects both sides of the body.

CIDP is caused by an abnormal immune response. CIDP occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin cover of the nerves. For this reason, CIDP is thought to be an autoimmune disease.

Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

The specific triggers of CIDP vary. In many cases, the cause cannot be identified.

CIDP may occur with other conditions, such as:

  • Chronic hepatitis
  • Diabetes
  • Infection with the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Immune system disorders due to cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Cancer of the lymph system
  • Overactive thyroid 
  • Side effects of medicines to treat cancer or HIV

What are the symptoms for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Symptoms include any of the following:

  • Problems walking due to weakness or lack of feeling in the feet
  • Trouble using the arms and hands or legs and feet due to weakness
  • Sensation changes, such as numbness or decreased sensation, pain, burning, tingling, or other abnormal sensations (usually affects the feet first, then the arms and hands)

Other symptoms that can occur with CIDP include:

  • Abnormal or uncoordinated movement
  • Problems breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Hoarseness or changing voice or slurred speech

What are the current treatments for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

The goal of treatment is to reverse the attack on the nerves. In some cases, nerves can heal and their function can be restored. In other cases, nerves are badly damaged and cannot heal, so treatment is aimed at preventing the disease from getting worse.

Which treatment is given depends on how severe the symptoms are, among other things. The most aggressive treatment is only given if you have difficulty walking, breathing, or if symptoms don't allow you to care for yourself or work.

Treatments may include:

  • Corticosteroids to help reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms
  • Other medicines that suppress the immune system (for some severe cases)
  • Plasmapheresis or plasma exchange to remove antibodies from the blood
  • Intravenous immune globulin (IVIg), which involves adding large numbers of antibodies to the blood plasma to reduce the effect of the antibodies that are causing the problem

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

The outcome varies. The disorder may continue long term, or you may have repeated episodes of symptoms. Complete recovery is possible, but permanent loss of nerve function is not uncommon.

What are the possible complications for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Complications of CIDP include:

  • Pain
  • Permanent decrease or loss of sensation in areas of the body
  • Permanent weakness or paralysis in areas of the body
  • Repeated or unnoticed injury to an area of the body
  • Side effects of medicines used to treat the disorder

When should I contact a medical professional for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy?

Call your provider if you have a loss of movement or sensation in any area of the body, especially if your symptoms get worse.

Central

REFERENCES

Katirji B. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107.

Smith G, Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 392.

Top Global Doctors For Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

EO
Elite
Eduardo Orazio-Nobile
Milan, IT
SK
Elite
Satoshi Kuwabara
Chiba, JP
DC
Elite
Dario Cocito
Turin, IT
VB
Elite
Vera Bril
Toronto, ON, CA

Latest Advances On Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

  • Condition: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
  • Journal: Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • Treatment Used: Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin
  • Number of Patients: 44
  • Published —
In this study, researchers evaluated the outcomes of subcutaneous immunoglobulin on the quality of life of persons with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
  • Condition: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Journal: Revista medica de Chile
  • Treatment Used: Corticosteroid
  • Number of Patients: 33
  • Published —
The study researched the outcomes of corticosteroid therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Clinical Trials For Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Phase: N/A
  • Intervention Type: Other
  • Participants: 20
  • Start Date: March 1, 2021
InertiaLocoGraphy as a Biomarker of Immunoglobulin Therapy Efficacy in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Intervention Type: Biological
  • Participants: 100
  • Start Date: March 2021
Hizentra® in Inflammatory Neuropathies - pHeNIx Study