What is the definition of Cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function. It is the last stage of chronic liver disease.

What are the alternative names for Cirrhosis?

Liver cirrhosis; Chronic liver disease; End-stage liver disease; Liver failure - cirrhosis; Ascites - cirrhosis

What are the causes for Cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is most often the end result of chronic liver damage caused by long-term (chronic) liver disease. Common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States are:

  • Hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Buildup of fat in the liver that is NOT caused by drinking too much alcohol (called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). It is closely related to being overweight, having high blood pressure, diabetes or pre-diabetes, and high cholesterol.

Less common causes of cirrhosis include:

  • When immune cells mistake the liver's normal cells for harmful invaders and attack them
  • Bile duct disorders
  • Some medicines
  • Liver diseases passed down in families 

What are the symptoms for Cirrhosis?

There may be no symptoms, or symptoms may come on slowly, depending on how well the liver is working. Often, it is discovered by chance when an x-ray is done for another reason.

Early symptoms include:

  • Fatigue and loss of energy
  • Poor appetite and weight loss
  • Nausea or belly pain
  • Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin

As liver function worsens, symptoms may include:

  • Fluid buildup in the legs (edema) and in the abdomen (ascites)
  • Yellow color in the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes (jaundice)
  • Redness on the palms of the hands
  • In men, impotence, shrinking of the testicles, and breast swelling
  • Easy bruising and abnormal bleeding, most often from swollen veins in the digestive tract
  • Confusion or problems thinking
  • Pale or clay-colored stools
  • Bleeding from upper or lower intestinal tract

What are the current treatments for Cirrhosis?

LIFESTYLE CHANGES

Some things you can do to help take care of your liver disease are:

  • Drink no alcohol.
  • Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt, fat, and simple carbohydrates.
  • Get vaccinated for diseases such as influenza, hepatitis A and B, and pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • Talk to your provider about all medicines you take, including herbs and supplements and over-the-counter medicines.
  • Exercise.
  • Control your underlying metabolic problems, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

MEDICINES FROM YOUR DOCTOR

  • Water pills (diuretics) to get rid of fluid build-up
  • Vitamin K or blood products to prevent excess bleeding
  • Medicines for mental confusion
  • Antibiotics for infections

OTHER TREATMENTS

  • Endoscopic treatments for enlarged veins in the esophagus (varices)
  • Removal of fluid from the abdomen (paracentesis)
  • Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to repair blood flow in the liver

When cirrhosis progresses to end-stage liver disease, a liver transplant may be needed.

What are the support groups for Cirrhosis?

You can often ease the stress of illness by joining a liver disease support group whose members share common experiences and problems.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is caused by scarring of the liver. In most cases, the liver cannot heal or return to normal function once damage is severe. Cirrhosis can lead to serious complications.

What are the possible complications for Cirrhosis?

Complications may include:

  • Bleeding disorders
  • Buildup of fluid in the abdomen (ascites) and infection of the fluid (bacterial peritonitis)
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus, stomach, or intestines that bleed easily (esophageal varices)
  • Increased pressure in the blood vessels of the liver (portal hypertension)
  • Kidney failure (hepatorenal syndrome)
  • Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
  • Mental confusion, change in the level of consciousness, or coma (hepatic encephalopathy)

When should I contact a medical professional for Cirrhosis?

Call your provider if you develop symptoms of cirrhosis.

Get emergency medical help right away if you have:

  • Abdominal or chest pain
  • Abdominal swelling or ascites that is new or suddenly becomes worse
  • A fever (temperature greater than 101°F or 38.3°C)
  • Diarrhea
  • Confusion or a change in alertness, or it gets worse
  • Rectal bleeding, vomiting blood, or blood in the urine
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vomiting more than once a day
  • Yellowing skin or eyes (jaundice) that is new or gets worse quickly

How do I prevent Cirrhosis?

DO NOT drink alcohol. Talk to your provider if you are worried about your drinking. Take steps to prevent getting hepatitis B or C or passing it to other people.

Digestive
Digestive
Liver

REFERENCES

Garcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 144.

Singal AK, Bataller R, Ahn J, Kamath PS, Shah VH. ACG Clinical Guideline: alcoholic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;113(2):175-194. PMID: 29336434 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29336434/.

Wilson SR, Withers CE. The liver. In: Rumack CM, Levine D, eds. Diagnostic Ultrasound. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 4.

Clinical Trial
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Phase: Phase 1/Phase 2
  • Intervention Type: Diagnostic Test, Drug, Other, Procedure, Radiation, Behavioral
  • Participants: 10
  • Start Date: December 2021
Hepatocyte Transplantation for Phenylketonuria
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Participants: 226
  • Start Date: December 2021
Impact of Intraabdominal Hypertension on Microaspiration Incidence in Cirrhotic Patients