Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
C. neoformans var. neoformans infection; C. neoformans var. gatti infection; C. neoformans var. grubii infection
C neoformans and C gattii are the fungi that cause this disease. Infection with C neoformans is seen worldwide. Infection with C gattii has mainly been seen in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, British Columbia in Canada, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Cryptococcus is the most common fungus that causes serious infection.
Both types of fungi are found in soil. If you breathe the fungus in, it infects your lungs. The infection may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body (disseminate). Cryptococcosis is most often seen in people with a weak immune system, such as those who:
C gattii may affect people with normal immune system.
C neoformans is the most common life-threatening cause of fungal infection in people with HIV/AIDS.
People between 20 to 40 years of age have this infection.
The infection may spread to the brain in people who have a weakened immune system. Neurological (brain) symptoms start slowly. Most people have swelling and irritation of the brain and spinal cord when they are diagnosed. Symptoms of brain infection may include:
The infection can also affect the lungs and other organs. Lung symptoms may include:
Other symptoms may include:
People with a healthy immune system may have no symptoms at all.
Some infections require no treatment. Even so, there should be regular checkups for a full year to make sure the infection has not spread. If there are lung lesions or the disease spreads, your provider will prescribe you antifungal medicines. These medicines may need to be taken for a long time.
Central nervous system involvement often causes death or leads to permanent damage.
Call your provider if you develop symptoms of cryptococcosis, especially if you have a weakened immune system.
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Robles WS, Ameen M. Cryptococcosis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson IH, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 49.