Learn About Dry Eye Syndrome

What is the definition of Dry Eye Syndrome?

You need tears to moisten the eyes and to wash away particles that have gotten into your eyes. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision.

Dry eyes develop when the eye is unable to maintain a healthy coating of tears.

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What are the alternative names for Dry Eye Syndrome?

Keratitis sicca; Xerophthalmia; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

What are the causes of Dry Eye Syndrome?

Dry eye commonly occurs in people who are otherwise healthy. It becomes more common with age. This can occur due to hormonal changes that make your eyes produce fewer tears. Dry eye symptom can sometimes be caused or worsened by a condition called meibomianitis, which changes the normal tear film.

Other common causes of dry eyes include:

  • Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning)
  • Sun exposure
  • Smoking or second-hand smoke exposure
  • Cold or allergy medicines
  • Wearing contact lenses

Dry eye can also be caused by:

  • Heat or chemical burns
  • Previous eye surgery
  • Use of eye drops for other eye diseases
  • A rare autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears are destroyed (Sjögren syndrome)
What are the symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome?

Symptoms may include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Burning, itching, or redness in the eye
  • Gritty or scratchy feeling in the eye
  • Sensitivity to light
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What are the current treatments for Dry Eye Syndrome?

The first step in treatment is artificial tears. These come as preserved (screw cap bottle) and unpreserved (twist open vial). Preserved tears are more convenient, but some people are sensitive to preservatives. There are many brands available without a prescription.

Start using the drops at least 2 to 4 times per day. If your symptoms are not better after a couple of weeks of regular use:

  • Increase use (up to every 2 hours).
  • Change to unpreserved drops if you have been using the preserved type.
  • Try a different brand.
  • Talk to your health care provider if you cannot find a brand that works for you.

Other treatments may include:

  • Fish oil 2 to 3 times per day
  • Glasses, goggles or contact lenses that keep moisture in the eyes
  • Medicines such as Restasis, Xiidra, topical corticosteroids, and oral tetracycline and doxycycline
  • Tiny plugs placed in the tear drainage ducts to help moisture stay on the surface of the eye longer

Other helpful steps include:

  • DO NOT smoke.
  • Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning.
  • Use a humidifier, particularly in the winter.
  • Limit allergy and cold medicines that may dry you out and worsen your symptoms.
  • Purposefully blink more often. Rest your eyes once in a while.
  • Clean eyelashes regularly and apply warm compresses.

Some dry eye symptoms are due to sleeping with the eyes slightly open. Lubricating ointments work best for this problem. You should use them only in small amounts since they can blur your vision. It is best to use them before sleep.

Surgery may be helpful if symptoms are because the eyelids are in an abnormal position.

Who are the top Dry Eye Syndrome Local Doctors?
Highly rated in

Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Sud

Rheumatology Department 
Paris, FR 94270

Raphaele Seror is in Paris, France. Seror is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome. They are also highly rated in 15 other conditions, according to our data. Their top areas of expertise are Sjogren Syndrome, Dry Eye Syndrome, Dry Mouth, and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Highly rated in

University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust

Birmingham, ENG, GB 

Simon Bowman is in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Bowman is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome. He is also highly rated in 6 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Dry Mouth, Sjogren Syndrome, Dry Eye Syndrome, and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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Highly rated in

University Of Udine

Udine, IT 33100

Salvatore De Vita is in Udine, Italy. De Vita is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome. He is also highly rated in 21 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Sjogren Syndrome, Dry Eye Syndrome, Dry Mouth, and Cryoglobulinemia.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Dry Eye Syndrome?

Most people with dry eye have only discomfort, and no vision loss.

What are the possible complications of Dry Eye Syndrome?

In severe cases, the clear covering on the eye (cornea) may become damaged or infected.

When should I contact a medical professional for Dry Eye Syndrome?

Call your provider right away if:

  • You have red or painful eyes.
  • You have flaking, discharge, or a sore on your eye or eyelid.
  • You have had an injury to your eye, or if you have a bulging eye or a drooping eyelid.
  • You have joint pain, swelling, or stiffness and a dry mouth along with dry eye symptoms.
  • Your eyes do not get better with self-care within a few days.
How do I prevent Dry Eye Syndrome?

Stay away from dry environments and things that irritate your eyes to help prevent symptoms.

Eye anatomy
Lacrimal gland
What are the latest Dry Eye Syndrome Clinical Trials?
Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Phase 2 Trial Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Pilocarpine Ophthalmic Topical Cream BID for the Treatment of Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease
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Predicting the Success of Dry Eye Disease Interventions Using Clinical Tests
What are the Latest Advances for Dry Eye Syndrome?
Effect of low-level light therapy in patients with dry eye: a prospective, randomized, observer-masked trial.
Clinical observation of Tiaoshen acpuncture for dry eye syndrome with yin deficiency of liver and kidney.
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Sodium hyaluronate combined with rhEGF contributes to alleviate clinical symptoms and Inflammation in patients with Xerophthalmia after cataract surgery.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date : December 14, 2020
Published By : Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Brissette AR, Bohm KJ, Starr CE. Dry eye overview: classification and treatment overview. In: Mannis MJ, Holland EJ, eds. Cornea. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 31.

Goldstein MH, Rao NK. Dry eye disease. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 4.23.

Margo CE, Harman LE. Dry eye syndrome. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:493-495.