Duodenal atresia is a condition in which the first part of the small bowel (the duodenum) has not developed properly. It is not open and cannot allow the passage of stomach contents.
The cause of duodenal atresia is not known. It is thought to result from problems during an embryo's development. The duodenum does not change from a solid to a tube-like structure, as it normally would.
Many infants with duodenal atresia also have Down syndrome. Duodenal atresia is often associated with other birth defects.
Symptoms of duodenal atresia include:
A tube is placed to decompress the stomach. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalances are corrected by providing fluids through an intravenous tube (IV, into a vein). Checking for other congenital anomalies should be done.
Surgery to correct the duodenal blockage is necessary, but not an emergency. The exact surgery will depend on the nature of the abnormality. Other problems (such as those related to Down syndrome) must be treated as appropriate.
Recovery from the duodenal atresia is expected after treatment. If not treated, the condition is deadly.
These complications may occur:
After surgery, there may be complications such as:
Call your health care provider if your newborn is:
There is no known prevention.
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Semrin MG, Russo MA. Anatomy, histology, and developmental anomalies of the stomach and duodenum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 48.