Condition 101

What is the definition of Echinococcosis?

Echinococcosis is an infection caused by either the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also called hydatid disease.

What are the alternative names for Echinococcosis?

Hydatidosis; Hydatid disease, Hydatid cyst disease; Alveolar cyst disease; Polycystic echinococcosis

What are the causes for Echinococcosis?

Humans become infected when they swallow the tapeworm eggs in contaminated food. The eggs then form cysts inside the body. A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch. The cysts keep growing, which leads to symptoms.

E granulosus is an infection caused by tapeworms found in dogs, and livestock such as sheep, pigs, goats, and cattle. These tapeworms are around 2 to 7 mm long. The infection is called cystic echinococcosis (CE). It leads to growth of cysts mainly in the lungs and liver. Cysts can also be found in the heart, bones, and brain.

E multilocularis is the infection caused by tapeworms found in dogs, cats, rodents, and foxes. These tapeworms are around 1 to 4 mm long. The infection is called alveolar echinococcosis (AE). It is a life-threatening condition because tumor-like growths form in the liver. Other organs, such as the lungs and brain can be affected.

Children or young adults are more prone to get the infection.

Echinococcosis is common in:

  • Africa
  • Central Asia
  • Southern South America
  • The Mediterranean
  • The Middle East

In rare cases, the infection is seen in the United States. It has been reported in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.

Risk factors include being exposed to:

  • Cattle
  • Deer
  • Feces of dogs, foxes, wolves, or coyotes
  • Pigs
  • Sheep
  • Camels

What are the symptoms for Echinococcosis?

Cysts may produce no symptoms for 10 years or more.

As the disease advances and the cysts get larger, symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen (liver cyst)
  • Increase in size of the abdomen due to swelling (liver cyst)
  • Bloody sputum (lung cyst)
  • Chest pain (lung cyst)
  • Cough (lung cyst)
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) when cysts break open

What are the current treatments for Echinococcosis?

Many people can be treated with anti-worm medicines.

A procedure that involves inserting a needle through the skin into the cyst may be tried. The contents of the cyst is removed (aspirated) through the needle. Then medicine is sent through the needle to kill the tapeworm. This treatment is not for cysts in the lungs.

Surgery is the treatment of choice for cysts that are large, infected, or located in organs, such as the heart and brain.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Echinococcosis?

If the cysts respond to oral medicines, the likely outcome is good.

When should I contact a medical professional for Echinococcosis?

Call your provider if you develop symptoms of this disorder.

How do I prevent Echinococcosis?

Measures to prevent CE and AE include:

  • Staying away from wild animals including foxes, wolves, and coyotes
  • Avoiding contact with stray dogs
  • Washing hands well after touching pet dogs or cats, and before handling food


Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN. General characteristics of the cestoidea. In: Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN, eds. Human Parasitology. 5th ed. London, UK: Elsevier Academic Press; 2019:chap 12.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web site. Parasites - echinococcosis. Updated December 12, 2012. Accessed October 22, 2018.

Gottstein B, Beldi G. Echinococcosis. In: Cohen J, Powderly WG, Opal SM, eds. Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 120.

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Latest Research

Latest Advance
  • Condition: Primary Hydatid Disease of the Chest Wall
  • Journal: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • Treatment Used: Radical Pericystectomy Followed by Chemotherapy with Albendazole
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This article described the case of a patient with primary hydatid disease (infection with the larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus) of the chest wall treated with radical pericystectomy (removal of a cyst and the surrounding area) followed by chemotherapy with albendazole.
Latest Advance
  • Condition: Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis
  • Journal: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie
  • Treatment Used: Albendazole Inductive Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a patient with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis treated with albendazole inductive therapy.
Latest Advance
  • Condition: Spinal Hydatid Disease
  • Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • Treatment Used: Thoracic Spinal Hydatidosis
  • Number of Patients: 16
  • Published —
This study tested the safety and efficacy of using a thoracic spinal hydatidosis to treat patients with spinal hydatid disease.
Latest Advance
  • Condition: Pterigopalatine Fossa Hydatid Cyst
  • Journal: The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • Treatment Used: Endonasal Endoscopic Management
  • Number of Patients: 4
  • Published —
The study measured using an endonasal endoscopic management (removal through the nose using a camera) approach to treat pterigopalatine fossa hydatid cyst.

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trial
  • Status: Active, not recruiting
  • Participants: 35
  • Start Date: January 1, 2009
Liver Echinococcosis; Jaundice as Initial Presentation, Short and Long Term Results of Surgical Treatment