What is the definition of Epispadias?

Epispadias is a rare defect that is present at birth. In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder. The urine exits the body from the wrong place with epispadias.

What are the alternative names for Epispadias?

Congenital defect - epispadias

What are the causes for Epispadias?

The causes of epispadias are not known. It may occur because the pubic bone does not develop properly.

Epispadias can occur with a rare birth defect called bladder exstrophy. In this birth defect, the bladder is open through the wall of the abdomen. Epispadias can also occur with other birth defects.

The condition occurs more often in boys than girls. It is most often diagnosed at birth or soon afterward.

What are the symptoms for Epispadias?

Males will have a short, wide penis with an abnormal curve. The urethra most often opens on the top or side of the penis instead of the tip. However, the urethra may be open along the whole length of the penis.

Females have an abnormal clitoris and labia. The urethral opening is often between the clitoris and the labia, but it may be in the belly area. They may have trouble controlling urination (urinary incontinence).

What are the current treatments for Epispadias?

People who have more than a mild case of epispadias will need surgery.

Leakage of urine (incontinence) can often be repaired at the same time. However, a second surgery may be needed either soon after the first surgery, or sometime in the future.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Epispadias?

Surgery can help the person control the flow of urine. It will also fix the appearance of the genitals.

What are the possible complications for Epispadias?

Some people with this condition may continue to have urinary incontinence, even after surgery.

Ureter and kidney damage and infertility may occur.

When should I contact a medical professional for Epispadias?

Call your health care provider if you have any questions about the appearance or function of your child's genitals or urinary tract.


Elder JS. Anomalies of the bladder. In: Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 556.

Gearhart JP, Di Carlo HN. Exstrophy-epispadias complex. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 31.

Stephany HA. Ost MC. Urologic disorders. In: Zitelli, BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, eds. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 15.

  • Condition: Exstrophy Epispadias Complex in Adults in Pakistan
  • Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • Treatment Used: Cystectomy with MAINZ Pouch II and Epispadias Repair
  • Number of Patients: 33
  • Published —
This study evaluated the outcomes of cystectomy plus MAINZ Pouch II and epispadias repair as a staged procedure in adult patients with exstrophy epispadias complex (exposed bladder; EEC) in Pakistan.
  • Journal: Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • Published —
Complete penile rehabilitation of a patient with microphallia after correction of bladder exstrophy.