Familial hemiplegic migraine is a form of migraine headache that runs in families. Migraines usually cause intense, throbbing pain in one area of the head, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. These recurrent headaches typically begin in childhood or adolescence and can be triggered by certain foods, emotional stress, and minor head trauma. Each headache may last from a few hours to a few days.
Mutations in the CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and PRRT2 genes have been found to cause familial hemiplegic migraine. The first three genes provide instructions for making proteins that are involved in the transport of charged atoms (ions) across cell membranes. The movement of these ions is critical for normal signaling between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. The function of the protein produced from the PRRT2 gene is unknown, although studies suggest it interacts with a protein that helps control signaling between neurons.
The worldwide prevalence of familial hemiplegic migraine is unknown. Studies suggest that in Denmark about 1 in 10,000 people have hemiplegic migraine and that the condition occurs equally in families with multiple affected individuals (familial hemiplegic migraine) and in individuals with no family history of the condition (sporadic hemiplegic migraine). Like other forms of migraine, familial hemiplegic migraine affects females more often than males.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, affected individuals have one affected parent. However, some people who inherit an altered gene never develop features of familial hemiplegic migraine. (This situation is known as reduced penetrance.) A related condition, sporadic hemiplegic migraine, has identical signs and symptoms but occurs in individuals with no history of the disorder in their family.
Published Date: January 01, 2014Published By: National Institutes of Health