Learn About Frostbite

FIRST AID

A person with frostbite on the arms or legs may also have hypothermia (lowered body temperature). Check for hypothermia and treat those symptoms first.

Take the following steps if you think someone might have frostbite:

  • Shelter the person from the cold and move them to a warmer place. Remove any tight jewelry and wet clothes. Look for signs of hypothermia (lowered body temperature) and treat that condition first.
  • If you can get medical help quickly, it is best to wrap the damaged areas in sterile dressings. Remember to separate affected fingers and toes. Transport the person to an emergency department for further care.
  • If medical help is not nearby, you may give the person rewarming first aid. Soak the affected areas in warm (never hot) water -- for 20 to 30 minutes. For ears, nose, and cheeks, apply a warm cloth repeatedly. The recommended water temperature is 104°F to 108°F (40°C to 42.2°C). Keep circulating the water to aid the warming process. Severe burning pain, swelling, and color changes may occur during warming. Warming is complete when the skin is soft and feeling returns.
  • Apply dry, sterile dressings to the frostbitten areas. Put dressings between frostbitten fingers or toes to keep them separated.
  • Move thawed areas as little as possible.
  • Refreezing of thawed extremities can cause more severe damage. Prevent refreezing by wrapping the thawed areas and keeping the person warm. If protection from refreezing cannot be guaranteed, it may be better to delay the initial rewarming process until a warm, safe location is reached.
  • If the frostbite is severe, give the person warm drinks to replace lost fluids.
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    DO NOT

    In case of frostbite, DO NOT:

    • Thaw out a frostbitten area if it cannot be kept thawed. Refreezing may make tissue damage even worse.
    • Use direct dry heat (such as a radiator, campfire, heating pad, or hair dryer) to thaw the frostbitten areas. Direct heat can burn the tissues that are already damaged.
    • Rub or massage the affected area.
    • Disturb blisters on frostbitten skin.
    • Smoke or drink alcoholic beverages during recovery as both can interfere with blood circulation.
    What is the definition of Frostbite?

    Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by extreme cold. Frostbite is the most common freezing injury.

    What are the alternative names for Frostbite?

    Cold exposure - arms or legs

    What are the causes of Frostbite?

    Frostbite occurs when the skin and body tissues are exposed to cold temperature for a long period of time.

    You are more likely to develop frostbite if you:

    • Take medicines called beta-blockers
    • Have poor blood supply to the legs (peripheral vascular disease)
    • Smoke
    • Have diabetes
    • Have Raynaud phenomenon
    What are the symptoms of Frostbite?

    Symptoms of frostbite may include:

    • Pins and needles feeling, followed by numbness
    • Hard, pale, and cold skin that has been exposed to the cold for too long
    • Aching, throbbing or lack of feeling in the affected area
    • Red and extremely painful skin and muscle as the area thaws

    Very severe frostbite may cause:

    • Blisters
    • Gangrene (blackened, dead tissue)
    • Damage to tendons, muscles, nerves, and bone

    Frostbite may affect any part of the body. The hands, feet, nose, and ears are the places most prone to the problem.

    • If the frostbite did not affect your blood vessels, a complete recovery is possible.
    • If the frostbite affected the blood vessels, the damage is permanent. Gangrene may occur. This may require removal of the affected body part (amputation).
    Not sure about your diagnosis?
    Check Your Symptoms
    When should I contact a medical professional for Frostbite?

    Call your health care provider if:

    • You had severe frostbite
    • Normal feeling and color do not return promptly after home treatment for mild frostbite
    • Frostbite has occurred recently and new symptoms develop, such as fever, general ill-feeling, skin discoloration, or drainage from the affected body part
    How do I prevent Frostbite?

    Be aware of factors that can contribute to frostbite. These include extreme:

    • Wet clothes
    • High winds
    • Poor blood circulation. Poor circulation can be caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped positions, fatigue, certain medicines, smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes.

    Wear clothing that protects you well against the cold. Protect exposed areas. In cold weather, wear mittens (not gloves); wind-proof, water-resistant, layered clothing; 2 pairs of socks; and a hat or scarf that covers the ears (to avoid heat loss through the scalp).

    If you expect to be exposed to the cold for a long period of time, do not drink alcohol or smoke. Make sure to get enough food and rest.

    If caught in a severe snowstorm, find shelter early or increase physical activity to maintain body warmth.

    First aid kit
    Frostbite - hands
    Frostbite
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    What are the latest Frostbite Clinical Trials?
    Assessment of Sous Vide Water Baths for Acute Rewarming of Frostbitten Extremities

    Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of using sous vide devices for heating and maintaining the circulating warm water bath used in the rewarming of acute frostbite.

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    Clinical and Mechanistic Study of Patients With a Recent Acrosyndrome

    Summary: The recent and unexpected occurrence of patients with the development of skin lesions on the hands and/ or feet has been described recently. As these cases occurred contemporaneously with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and as it was the most often occurrence of de novo frostbites, the question raised of whether there is a direct link between the occurrence of these lesions and infection o...

    What are the Latest Advances for Frostbite?
    Early Use of Iloprost in Nonfreezing Cold Injury.
    B cell depletion therapy using rituximab to induce long-term remission of recalcitrant skin lesions of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
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    Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

    Published Date: November 13, 2021
    Published By: Jesse Borke, MD, CPE, FAAEM, FACEP, Attending Physician at Kaiser Permanente, Orange County, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

    What are the references for this article ?

    Freer L, Handford C, Imray CHE. Frostbite. In: Auerbach PS, Cushing TA, Harris NS, eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 9.

    Manson PN. Management of frostbite, hypothermia, and cold injuries. In: Cameron AM, Cameron JL, eds. Current Surgical Therapy. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020: 1306-1311.

    Prendergast HM, Erickson TB. Procedures pertaining to hypothermia and hyperthermia. In: Roberts JR, Custalow CB, Thomsen TW, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 65.

    Sawka MN, O'Connor FG. Disorders due to heat and cold. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 101.

    Zafren K, Danzl DF. Accidental hypothermia. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 132.

    Zafren K, Danzl DF. Frostbite and nonfreezing cold injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 131.