Method of administration: Intravenous, Intramuscular
FDA approval date: April 20, 2005
Classification: Cephalosporin Antibacterial
Before instituting treatment with ceftriaxone, appropriate specimens should be obtained for isolation of the causative organism and for determination of its susceptibility to the drug. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ceftriaxone for injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, ceftriaxone for injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Ceftriaxone for injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms: Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis or Serratia marcescens. Acute Bacterial Otitis Media Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains) or Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains). NOTE: In one study lower clinical cure rates were observed with a single dose of ceftriaxone compared to 10 days of oral therapy. In a second study comparable cure rates were observed between single dose ceftriaxone and the comparator. The potentially lower clinical cure rate of ceftriaxone should be balanced against the potential advantages of parenteral therapy. Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii*, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides fragilis * or Peptostreptococcus species. Urinary Tract Infections (complicated and uncomplicated) Caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Uncomplicated Gonorrhea (cervical/urethral and rectal) Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including both penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains, and pharyngeal gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ceftriaxone sodium, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added. Bacterial Septicemia Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bone and Joint Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter species. Intra-abdominal Infections Caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium species (Note: most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant) or Peptostreptococcus species. Meningitis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone has also been used successfully in a limited number of cases of meningitis and shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis * and Escherichia coli*. * Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections. Surgical Prophylaxis The preoperative administration of a single 1 g dose of ceftriaxone may reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients, such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis not requiring therapeutic antimicrobials, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones) and in surgical patients for whom infection at the operative site would present serious risk (e.g., during coronary artery bypass surgery). Although ceftriaxone has been shown to have been as effective as cefazolin in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery, no placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate any cephalosporin antibiotic in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery. When administered prior to surgical procedures for which it is indicated, a single 1 g dose of ceftriaxone provides protection from most infections due to susceptible organisms throughout the course of the procedure.
Method of administration: Auricular (otic), Oral, Intravenous, Ophthalmic, Topical, Intratympanic
FDA approval date: October 22, 1987
Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial indicated in adults (18 years of age and older) with the following infections caused by designated, susceptible bacteria and in pediatric patients where indicated: Skin and Skin Structure Infections ( Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ), Bone and Joint Infections.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin C-R and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin C-R should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderately severe infections due to penicillin-G-susceptible microorganisms that are susceptible to serum levels common to this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including susceptibility testing) and by clinical response. Bicillin C-R is indicated in the treatment of the following in adults and pediatric patients: Moderately severe to severe infections of the upper-respiratory tract, scarlet fever, erysipelas, and skin and soft-tissue infections due to susceptible streptococci. NOTE: Streptococci in Groups A, C, G, H, L, and M are very sensitive to penicillin G. Other groups, including Group D (enterococci), are resistant. Penicillin G sodium or potassium is recommended for streptococcal infections with bacteremia. Moderately severe pneumonia and otitis media due to susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. NOTE: Severe pneumonia, empyema, bacteremia, pericarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and arthritis of pneumococcal etiology are better treated with penicillin G sodium or potassium during the acute stage. When high, sustained serum levels are required, penicillin G sodium or potassium, either IM or IV, should be used. This drug should not be used in the treatment of venereal diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhea, yaws, bejel, and pinta.
Method of administration: Auricular (otic), Oral, Ophthalmic
FDA approval date: August 01, 1993
Classification: Quinolone Antimicrobial
OCUFLOX ® ophthalmic solution is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the following bacteria in the conditions listed below: *Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections CONJUNCTIVITIS: Gram-positive bacteria: Gram-negative bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus Enterobacter cloacae Staphylococcus epidermidis Haemophilus influenzae Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa CORNEAL ULCERS: Gram-positive bacteria: Gram-negative bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus epidermidis Serratia marcescens* Streptococcus pneumoniae Anaerobic species: Propionibacterium acnes.