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Condition

Hemolytic Anemia

Symptoms, Doctors, Treatments, Research & More

Condition 101

What is the definition of Hemolytic Anemia?

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days in the body. In hemolytic anemia, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal.

What are the alternative names for Hemolytic Anemia?

Anemia - hemolytic

What are the causes for Hemolytic Anemia?

The bone marrow is mostly responsible for making new red cells. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells.

Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow isn't making enough red cells to replace the ones that are being destroyed.

There are several possible causes of hemolytic anemia. Red blood cells may be destroyed due to:

  • An autoimmune problem in which the immune system mistakenly sees your own red blood cells as foreign substances and destroys them
  • Genetic defects within the red cells (such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and G6PD deficiency)
  • Exposure to certain chemicals, medicines, and toxins
  • Infections
  • Blood clots in small blood vessels
  • Transfusion of blood from a donor with a blood type that does not match yours

What are the symptoms for Hemolytic Anemia?

You may not have symptoms if the anemia is mild. If the problem develops slowly, the first symptoms may be:

  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Feelings that your heart is pounding or racing
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

  • Lightheadedness when you stand up
  • Pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue
  • Enlarged spleen

What are the current treatments for Hemolytic Anemia?

Treatment depends on the type and cause of the hemolytic anemia:

  • In emergencies, a blood transfusion may be needed.
  • For immune causes, medicines that suppress the immune system may be used.
  • When blood cells are being destroyed at a fast pace, the body may need extra folic acid and iron supplements to replace what is being lost.

In rare cases, surgery is needed to take out the spleen. This is because the spleen acts as a filter that removes abnormal cells from the blood.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Hemolytic Anemia?

Outcome depends on the type and cause of hemolytic anemia. Severe anemia can make heart disease, lung disease, or cerebrovascular disease worse.

When should I contact a medical professional for Hemolytic Anemia?

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of hemolytic anemia.

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REFERENCES

Brodsky RA. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 31.

Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red blood cell membrane and metabolic defects. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 152.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Hematopoietic and lymphoid systems. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins Basic Pathology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 12.

Latest Research

Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Thalassemia Intermedia
  • Journal: F1000Research
  • Treatment Used: Green Tea
  • Number of Patients: 29
  • Published —
The study researched the outcomes of green tea in patients with thalassemia intermedia.
Latest Advance
Study
  • Condition: Sickle Cell Disease
  • Journal: Cells
  • Treatment Used: Hydroxyurea (HU)
  • Number of Patients: 0
  • Published —
This study characterized hematopoiesis in sickle cell disease and the role of hydroxyurea (HU) treatment.

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trial
Drug
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Study Type: Drug
  • Participants: 100
  • Start Date: July 2021
Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Greater Than 5 Years of Age Living in Northern Nigeria
Clinical Trial
Behavioral
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Study Type: Behavioral
  • Participants: 40
  • Start Date: May 2021
Designing an Implementation Strategy for Delivering Routine Mental Health Screening and Treatment for Adolescents and Adults With Sickle Cell Disease