Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.
Viral hepatitis; Infectious hepatitis
The hepatitis A virus is found mostly in the stool and blood of an infected person. The virus is present about 15 to 45 days before symptoms occur and during the first week of illness.
You can catch hepatitis A if:
Not everyone has symptoms with hepatitis A infection. Therefore, many more people are infected than are diagnosed or reported.
Risk factors include:
Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is the least serious and mildest of these diseases.
Symptoms most often show up 2 to 6 weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis A virus. They are most often mild, but may last for up to several months, especially in adults.
There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A.
The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone.
Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all people get better within 6 months. There is no lasting damage once you've recovered. Also, you can't get the disease again. There is a low risk for death. The risk is higher among older adults and people with chronic liver disease.
Call your provider if you have symptoms of hepatitis.
The following tips can help reduce your risk of spreading or catching the virus:
The virus may spread more rapidly through day care centers and other places where people are in close contact. Thorough hand washing before and after each diaper change, before serving food, and after using the toilet may help prevent such outbreaks.
Ask your provider about getting either immune globulin or the hepatitis A vaccine if you are exposed to the disease and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine.
Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include:
Vaccines that protect against hepatitis A infection are available. The vaccine begins to protect 4 weeks after you get the first dose. You will need to get a booster shot 6 to 12 months later for long-term protection.
Travelers should take the following steps to protect against getting the disease:
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Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 139.
Robinson CL, Bernstein H, Poehling K, Romero JR, Szilagyi P. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger - United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(5):130-132. PMID: 32027628 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32027628.
Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. Hepatitis A. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 78.