Learn About Herpetic Stomatitis

What is the definition of Herpetic Stomatitis?

Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. These mouth ulcers are not the same as canker sores, which are not caused by a virus.

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What are the alternative names for Herpetic Stomatitis?

Stomatitis - herpetic; Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis

What are the causes of Herpetic Stomatitis?

Herpetic stomatitis is an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), or oral herpes. Young children commonly get it when they are first exposed to HSV. The first outbreak is usually the most severe. HSV can easily be spread from one child to another.

If you or another adult in the family has a cold sore, it could have spread to your child and caused herpetic stomatitis. More likely, you won't know how your child became infected.

What are the symptoms of Herpetic Stomatitis?

Symptoms may include:

  • Blisters in the mouth, often on the tongue, cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and on the border between the inside of the lip and the skin next to it
  • After blisters pop, they form ulcers in the mouth, often on the tongue or cheeks
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Drooling
  • Fever, often as high as 104°F (40°C), which may occur 1 to 2 days before blisters and ulcers appear
  • Irritability
  • Mouth pain
  • Swollen gums

Symptoms may be so uncomfortable that your child doesn't want to eat or drink.

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What are the current treatments for Herpetic Stomatitis?

Your child's provider may prescribe:

  • Acyclovir, a medicine your child takes that fights the virus causing the infection
  • Numbing medicine (viscous lidocaine), which you can apply to your child's mouth to ease severe pain

Use lidocaine with care, because it can numb all feeling in your child's mouth. This can make it hard for your child to swallow, and may lead to burns in the mouth or throat from eating hot foods, or cause choking.

There are several things you can do at home to help your child feel better:

  • Give your child cool, noncarbonated, nonacidic drinks, such as water, milk shakes, or diluted apple juice. Dehydration can occur quickly in children, so make sure your child is getting enough fluids.
  • Offer cool, bland, easy-to-swallow foods such as frozen pops, ice cream, mashed potatoes, gelatin, or applesauce.
  • Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain. (Never give aspirin to a child under age 2. It can cause Reye syndrome, a rare, but serious illness.)
  • Bad breath and a coated tongue are common side effects. Gently brush your child's teeth every day.
  • Make sure your child gets plenty of sleep and rests as much as possible.
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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Herpetic Stomatitis?

Your child should recover completely within 10 days without treatment. Acyclovir may speed up your child's recovery.

Your child will have the herpes virus for life. In most people, the virus stays inactive in their body. If the virus wakes up again, it most often causes a cold sore on the mouth. Sometimes, it can affect the inside of the mouth, but it won't be as severe as the first episode.

When should I contact a medical professional for Herpetic Stomatitis?

Contact your provider if your child develops a fever followed by a sore mouth, and your child stops eating and drinking. Your child can quickly become dehydrated.

If the herpes infection spreads to the eye, it is an emergency and can lead to blindness. Contact your doctor right away.

How do I prevent Herpetic Stomatitis?

About 90% of the population carries HSV. There's little you can do to prevent your child from picking up the virus sometime during childhood.

Your child should avoid all close contact with people who have cold sores. So if you get a cold sore, explain why you can't kiss your child until the sore is gone. Your child should also avoid other children with herpetic stomatitis.

If your child has herpetic stomatitis, avoid spreading the virus to other children. While your child has symptoms:

  • Have your child wash their hands often.
  • Keep toys clean and don't share them with other children.
  • Don't allow children to share dishes, cups, or eating utensils.
  • Don't let your child kiss other children.
Swollen gums
What are the latest Herpetic Stomatitis Clinical Trials?
A Randomized, Efficacy Assessor-Blinded, Study to Assess Preliminary Efficacy and Safety of EDTA Eye Drops v. an Active Comparator in the Suppression of Herpes Simplex Virus Eruptions in Subjects With a History of Herpes Labialis

Summary: This will be a randomized, efficacy assessor-blinded, parallel group, pilot study of up to 20 subjects with documented herpes labialis. Patients will be treated with the study drug, EDTA Eye Drops or the active comparator of Abreva. Potential subjects will be assessed during a screening visit that must take place no greater than 2 weeks prior to the Day 1 (Baseline) visit. During the screening per...

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Should We Use Oral Valacyclovir in Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis in Children? A Randomized Controlled Trial

Summary: Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is a frequent problem in pediatrics. Complications of this are dehydration, pain and hospitalisation. The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to assess the clinical efficacy of oral Valacyclovir to decrease the duration of symptoms associated with acute herpes gingivostomatitis in children. This study will involve 80 children aged 1 to 8 years old to...

What are the Latest Advances for Herpetic Stomatitis?
Honey can help in herpes simplex gingivostomatitis in children: Prospective randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.
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Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: August 10, 2021
Published By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Dhar V. Common lesions of the oral soft tissues. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 341.

Kimberlin DW, Prober CG. Herpes simplex virus. In: Long SS, Prober CG, Fischer M, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 204.

Martin B, Baumhardt H, D'Alesio A, Woods K. Oral disorders. In: Zitelli BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, eds. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 21.