Learn About Hypomelanosis of Ito

What is the definition of Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Hypomelanosis of Ito (HMI) is a very rare birth defect that causes unusual patches of light-colored (hypopigmented) skin and may be associated with eye, nervous system, and skeletal problems.

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What are the alternative names for Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Incontinentia pigmenti achromians; HMI; Ito hypomelanosis

What are the causes of Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Health care providers do not know the exact cause of HMI, but they believe it may involve a genetic condition called mosaicism. It is twice as common in girls as in boys.

What are the symptoms of Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Skin symptoms are most often visible by the time a child is about 2 years old.

Other symptoms develop as the child grows, and may include:

  • Crossed eyes (strabismus)
  • Hearing problems
  • Increased body hair (hirsutism)
  • Scoliosis
  • Seizures
  • Streaked, whorled or mottled patches of skin on the arms, legs, and middle of the body
  • Intellectual disability, including autism spectrum and learning disability
  • Mouth or tooth problems
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What are the current treatments for Hypomelanosis of Ito?

There is no treatment for the skin patches. Cosmetics or clothing may be used to cover the patches. Seizures, scoliosis, and other problems are treated as needed.

Who are the top Hypomelanosis of Ito Local Doctors?
Highly rated in

Université Bourgogne Franche Comté

Dijon, FR 

Virginie Carmignac is in Dijon, France. Carmignac is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Hypomelanosis of Ito. She is also highly rated in 18 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Hypomelanosis of Ito, Cohen Syndrome, Mosaicism, and Arachnodactyly.

Highly rated in

Université De Bourgogne

Inserm Umr1231, Equipe Génétique Des Anomalies Du Développement 
Dijon, FR 

Jean-baptiste Riviere is in Dijon, France. Riviere is rated as a Distinguished expert by MediFind in the treatment of Hypomelanosis of Ito. They are also highly rated in 24 other conditions, according to our data. Their top areas of expertise are Hypomelanosis of Ito, Increased Head Circumference, Mosaicism, and Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome.

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Highly rated in

Hôpital D'Enfants

Dijon, FR 

Laurence Faivre is in Dijon, France. Faivre is rated as a Distinguished expert by MediFind in the treatment of Hypomelanosis of Ito. He is also highly rated in 135 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Hypotonia, Cortical Dysplasia, Cohen Syndrome, and Achalasia Microcephaly Syndrome.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Hypomelanosis of Ito?

The outlook depends on the type and severity of symptoms that develop. In most cases, skin color eventually turns to normal.

What are the possible complications of Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Problems that may result from HMI include:

  • Discomfort and walking problems due to scoliosis
  • Emotional distress, related to the physical appearance
  • Intellectual disability
  • Injury from seizures
When should I contact a medical professional for Hypomelanosis of Ito?

Call your provider if your child has an unusual pattern of the color of the skin. However, any unusual patterns are likely to have another cause than HMI.

What are the latest Hypomelanosis of Ito Clinical Trials?
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What are the Latest Advances for Hypomelanosis of Ito?

There is no recent research available for this condition. Please check back because thousands of new papers are published every week and we strive to find and display the most recent relevant research as soon as it is available.

Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: April 14, 2021
Published By: Elika Hoss, MD, Senior Associate Consultant, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Joyce JC. Hypopigmented lesions. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 672.

Patterson JW. Disorders of pigmentation. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 11.