Condition 101 About Interstitial Nephritis

What is the definition of Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder in which the spaces between the kidney tubules become swollen (inflamed). This can cause problems with the way your kidneys work.

What are the alternative names for Interstitial Nephritis?

Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis - interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis

What are the causes for Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis may be temporary (acute), or it may be long-lasting (chronic) and get worse over time.

The acute form of interstitial nephritis is most often caused by side effects of certain drugs.

The following can cause interstitial nephritis:

  • Allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis).
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as antitubular basement membrane disease, Kawasaki disease, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
  • Infections.
  • Long-term use of medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This is called analgesic nephropathy.
  • Side effect of certain antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, and sulfonamide medicines.
  • Side effect of other medicines such as furosemide, thiazide diuretics, omeprazole, triamterene, and allopurinol.
  • Too little potassium in your blood.
  • Too much calcium or uric acid in your blood.

What are the symptoms for Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial nephritis can cause mild to severe kidney problems, including acute kidney failure. In about half of cases, people will have decreased urine output and other signs of acute kidney failure.

Symptoms of this condition may include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Fever
  • Increased or decreased urine output
  • Mental status changes (drowsiness, confusion, coma)
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rash
  • Swelling of any area of body
  • Weight gain (from retaining fluid)

What are the current treatments for Interstitial Nephritis?

Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. Avoiding medicines that lead to this condition may quickly relieve symptoms.

Limiting salt and fluid in the diet can improve swelling and high blood pressure. Limiting protein in the diet can help control the buildup of waste products in the blood (azotemia), which can lead to symptoms of acute kidney failure.

If dialysis is necessary, it usually is required for only a short time.

Corticosteroids or stronger anti-inflammatory medicines such as cyclophosphamide can sometimes be helpful.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Interstitial Nephritis?

Most often, interstitial nephritis is a short-term disorder. In rare cases, it can cause permanent damage, including long-term (chronic) kidney failure.

Acute interstitial nephritis may be more severe and more likely to lead to long-term or permanent kidney damage in older people.

What are the possible complications for Interstitial Nephritis?

Metabolic acidosis can occur because the kidneys aren't able to remove enough acid. The disorder can lead to acute or chronic kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease.

When should I contact a medical professional for Interstitial Nephritis?

Call your provider if you have symptoms of interstitial nephritis.

If you have interstitial nephritis, call your provider if you get new symptoms, especially if you are less alert or have a decrease in urine output.

How do I prevent Interstitial Nephritis?

Often, the disorder can't be prevented. Avoiding or reducing your use of medicines that can cause this condition can help reduce your risk. If needed, your provider will tell you which medicines to stop or reduce.

Kidney

REFERENCES

Neilson EG. Tubulointerstitial nephritis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 122.

Perazella MA, Rosner MH. Tubulointerstitial diseases. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Luyckx VA, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 35.

Tanaka T, Nangaku M. Chronic interstitial nephritis. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 62.

Top Global Doctors For Interstitial Nephritis

Latest Advances On Interstitial Nephritis

  • Condition: Common Infections
  • Journal: Clinical medicine (London, England)
  • Treatment Used: Antibiotics
  • Number of Patients: 423
  • Published —
This study review patients who received at least five days of antibiotic therapy for common medical infections.
  • Condition: Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Complicated by Bacterial Endophthalmitis
  • Journal: Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • Treatment Used: Multidisciplinary Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a 49-year-old male diagnosed with emphysematous pyelonephritis (kidney infection) complicated by bacterial endophthalmitis (eye infection) treated with multidisciplinary therapy.

Clinical Trials For Interstitial Nephritis