Condition 101 About Mastoiditis

What is the definition of Mastoiditis?

Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid is located just behind the ear.

What are the causes for Mastoiditis?

Mastoiditis is most often caused by a middle ear infection (acute otitis media). The infection may spread from the ear to the mastoid bone. The bone has a honeycomb-like structure that fills with infected material and may break down.

The condition is most common in children. Before antibiotics, mastoiditis was one of the leading causes of death in children. The condition does not occur very often today. It is also much less dangerous.

What are the symptoms for Mastoiditis?

Symptoms include:

  • Drainage from the ear
  • Ear pain or discomfort
  • Fever, may be high or suddenly increase
  • Headache
  • Hearing loss
  • Redness of the ear or behind the ear
  • Swelling behind the ear, may cause ear to stick out or feel as if it is filled with fluid

What are the current treatments for Mastoiditis?

Mastoiditis may be hard to treat because the medicine may not reach deeply into the bone. The condition sometimes requires repeated or long-term treatment. The infection is treated with antibiotic injections, followed by antibiotics taken by mouth.

Surgery to remove part of the bone and drain the mastoid (mastoidectomy) may be needed if antibiotic treatment does not work. Surgery to drain the middle ear through the eardrum (myringotomy) may be needed to treat the middle ear infection.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Mastoiditis?

Mastoiditis can be cured. However, it may be hard to treat and may come back.

What are the possible complications for Mastoiditis?

Complications may include:

  • Destruction of the mastoid bone
  • Dizziness or vertigo
  • Epidural abscess
  • Facial paralysis
  • Meningitis
  • Partial or complete hearing loss
  • Spread of infection to the brain or throughout the body

When should I contact a medical professional for Mastoiditis?

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of mastoiditis.

Also call if:

  • You have an ear infection that does not respond to treatment or is followed by new symptoms.
  • Your symptoms do not respond to treatment.
  • You notice any facial asymmetry.

How do I prevent Mastoiditis?

Prompt and thorough treatment of ear infections reduces the risk for mastoiditis.



Pelton SI. Otitis externa, otitis media, and mastoiditis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 61.

Pfaff JA, Moore GP. Otolaryngology. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 62.

Top Global Doctors For Mastoiditis

Tal Marom
Tal Marom
Ashdod, D, IL
Riste Saat
Helsinki, FI
Jussi P. Jero
Turku, FI

Latest Advances On Mastoiditis

  • Condition: Cerebral Vasculitis
  • Journal: BMJ case reports
  • Treatment Used: High-Dose Steroid and Heparin
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
The study researched the outcomes of high-dose steroid and heparin for treating a case of cerebral vasculitis associated with bacterial meningitis.
  • Condition: Post-Traumatic Preauricular Pulsatile Swelling
  • Journal: BMJ case reports
  • Treatment Used: Oral Anticoagulation Therapy
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report discusses a patient who developed a superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm (STAPA) after trauma to the head while on oral anti-coagulation.

Clinical Trials For Mastoiditis

There are no recent clinical trials available for this condition. Please check back because new trials are being conducted frequently.