What is the definition of Mediastinal Tumor?

Mediastinal tumors are growths that form in the mediastinum. This is an area in the middle of the chest that separates the lungs.

What are the alternative names for Mediastinal Tumor?

Thymoma - mediastinal; Lymphoma - mediastinal

What are the causes for Mediastinal Tumor?

The mediastinum is the part of the chest that lies between the sternum and the spinal column, and between the lungs. This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), thymus gland, esophagus, and connective tissues. The mediastinum is divided into three sections:

  • Anterior (front)
  • Middle
  • Posterior (back)

Mediastinal tumors are rare.

The common location for tumors in the mediastinum depends on the age of the person. In children, tumors are more common in the posterior mediastinum. These tumors often begin in the nerves and are noncancerous (benign).

Most mediastinal tumors in adults occur in the anterior mediastinum. They are usually cancerous (malignant) lymphomas, germ cell tumors, or thymomas. These tumors are most common in middle aged and older adults.

What are the symptoms for Mediastinal Tumor?

Almost one half of mediastinal tumors cause no symptoms and are found on a chest x-ray done for another reason. Symptoms that do occur are due to pressure on (compression of) local structures and may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Fever and chills
  • Cough
  • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis)
  • Hoarseness
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath

What are the current treatments for Mediastinal Tumor?

Treatment for mediastinal tumors depends on the type of tumor and symptoms:

  • Thymic cancers are treated with surgery. It may be followed by radiation or chemotherapy, depending on the stage of the tumor and the success of the surgery.
  • Germ cell tumors are usually treated with chemotherapy.
  • For lymphomas, chemotherapy is the treatment of choice, and is possibly followed by radiation.
  • For neurogenic tumors of the posterior mediastinum, surgery is the main treatment.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Mediastinal Tumor?

The outcome depends on the type of tumor. Different tumors respond differently to chemotherapy and radiation.

What are the possible complications for Mediastinal Tumor?

Complications of mediastinal tumors include:

  • Spinal cord compression
  • Spread to nearby structures such as the heart, lining around the heart (pericardium), and great vessels (aorta and vena cava)

Radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy can all have serious complications.

When should I contact a medical professional for Mediastinal Tumor?

Contact your health care provider if you notice symptoms of a mediastinal tumor.



Cheng GS, Varghese TK, Park DR. Mediastinal tumors and cysts. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83.

McCool FD. Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 92.

  • Condition: Cardiac Myxoma and Atypical Thymic Carcinoid
  • Journal: Journal of medical case reports
  • Treatment Used: Simultaneous Surgical Resection
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This study reports a case of simultaneous surgical resection in a patient with coexisting cardiac myxoma and atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • Condition: Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Journal: Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • Treatment Used: Radiotherapy
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes an 81-year-old woman with recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung treated with radiotherapy alone.