Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei that are commonly found in the soil and water. Melioidosis is a rare disease in the United States, but it is common in tropical or subtropical areas of the world, including Southeast Asia, Africa, and Australia. The signs and symptoms of the disease can vary greatly and may mimic those of tuberculosis or common forms of pneumonia. Symptoms may include pain or swelling, fever, abscess, cough, high fever, headache, trouble breathing, and more. Although healthy people can also experience symptoms of the disease, people with certain conditions like diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, lung disease, thalassemia, cancer, or certain autoimmune diseases may be more severely affected. Diagnosis is made by collecting blood, sputum, urine, or pus samples and growing the bacteria.