Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that supply the small and large intestines. These are called the mesenteric arteries.
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The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta. The aorta is the main artery from the heart.
Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries. This is more common in smokers and in people with high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol.
This narrows the blood vessels and reduces blood flow to the intestines. Like every other part of the body, blood brings oxygen to the intestines. When the oxygen supply is slowed, symptoms may occur.
The blood supply to the intestines may be suddenly blocked by a blood clot (embolus). The clots most often come from the heart or aorta. These clots are more commonly seen in people with abnormal heart rhythm.
Symptoms caused by gradual hardening of the mesenteric arteries include:
Symptoms of sudden (acute) mesenteric artery ischemia due to a traveling blood clot include:
When blood supply is blocked to a part of the heart muscle, the muscle will die. This is called a heart attack. A similar type of injury can occur to any part of the intestines.
When the blood supply is suddenly cut off by a blood clot, it is an emergency. Treatment can include medicines to dissolve the blood clots and open up the arteries.
If you have symptoms due to hardening of the mesenteric arteries, there are things you can do to control the problem:
Surgery may be done if the problem is severe.
Lawrence Brandt is a Gastroenterologist in The Bronx, New York. Dr. Brandt has been practicing medicine for over 54 years and is rated as an Elite doctor by MediFind in the treatment of Mesenteric Artery Ischemia. He is also highly rated in 9 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Mesenteric Artery Ischemia, Pseudomembranous Colitis, Diarrhea, and Colitis. He is board certified in Gastroenterology and licensed to treat patients in New York. Dr. Brandt is currently accepting new patients.
Muhammed Sherid is a Gastroenterologist in Ormond Beach, Florida. Dr. Sherid has been practicing medicine for over 23 years and is rated as an Elite doctor by MediFind in the treatment of Mesenteric Artery Ischemia. He is also highly rated in 6 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Mesenteric Artery Ischemia, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Diarrhea, and Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome. He is board certified in Gastroenterology and licensed to treat patients in Maine and Illinois. Dr. Sherid is currently accepting new patients.
Francesca Iacobellis is in Naples, Italy. Iacobellis is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Mesenteric Artery Ischemia. She is also highly rated in 3 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Mesenteric Artery Ischemia, Anal Fissure, Gastrointestinal Perforation, and Anorectal Abscess.
The outlook for chronic mesenteric ischemia is good after a successful surgery. However, it is important to make lifestyle changes to prevent hardening of the arteries from getting worse.
People with hardening of the arteries that supply the intestines often have the same problems in blood vessels that supply the heart, brain, kidneys, or legs.
People with acute mesenteric ischemia often do poorly because parts of the intestine may die before surgery can be done. This can be fatal. However, with prompt diagnosis and treatment, acute mesenteric ischemia can be treated successfully.
Tissue death from lack of blood flow (infarction) in the intestines is the most serious complication of mesenteric artery ischemia. Surgery may be needed to remove the dead portion.
Call your provider if you have:
The following lifestyle changes can reduce your risk for narrowing of the arteries:
Published Date : January 14, 2020
Published By : Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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Kahi CJ. Vascular diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 134.
Lo RC, Schermerhorn ML. Mesenteric arterial disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical evaluation. In: Sidawy AN, Perler BA, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 131.