Learn About Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis

What is the definition of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the intestine. The superior mesenteric vein is most commonly involved.

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What are the alternative names for Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

MVT

What are the causes of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

MVT is a clot that blocks blood flow in a mesenteric vein. There are two such veins through which blood leaves the intestine. The condition stops the blood circulation of the intestine and can result in damage to the intestine.

The exact cause of MVT is unknown. However, there are many diseases that can lead to MVT. Many of the diseases cause swelling (inflammation) of the tissues surrounding the veins, and include:

  • Appendicitis
  • Cancer of the abdomen
  • Diverticulitis
  • Liver disease with cirrhosis
  • High blood pressure in the blood vessels of the liver
  • Abdominal surgery or trauma
  • Pancreatitis
  • Inflammatory bowel disorders
  • Heart failure
  • Protein C or S deficiencies
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Essential thrombocythemia

People who have disorders that make the blood more likely to stick together (clot) have a higher risk for MVT. Birth control pills and estrogen medicines also increase risk.

MVT is more common in men than women. It mainly affects middle aged or older adults.

What are the symptoms of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Abdominal pain, which may get worse after eating and over time
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Septic shock
  • Lower gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Vomiting and nausea
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What are the current treatments for Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Blood thinners are used to treat MVT when there is no associated bleeding. In some cases, medicine can be delivered directly into the clot to dissolve it. This procedure is called thrombolysis.

Less often, the clot is removed with a type of surgery called thrombectomy.

If there are signs and symptoms of a severe infection called peritonitis, surgery to remove the injured part of the intestine is done. After surgery, an ileostomy (opening from the small intestine into a bag on the skin) or colostomy (an opening from the colon into the skin) may be needed.

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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Outlook depends on the cause of the thrombosis and any damage to the intestine. Getting treatment for the cause before the intestine has died can result in a good recovery.

What are the possible complications of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Intestinal ischemia is a serious complication of MVT. Part or all of the intestine dies because of poor blood supply.

When should I contact a medical professional for Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?

Contact your health care provider if you have severe or repeated episodes of abdominal pain.

What are the latest Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Clinical Trials?
Phase Ib/II Trial of Combining Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib With Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients With Portal Vein Thrombosis.
Summary: HCC patients with PVTT (main trunk or the first-degree branch) treated with the combination of pembrolizumab (Ketruda), lenvatinib (Lenvima), and SBRT.
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Exercise Intolerance and Skeletal Muscle Bioenergetics in Children With Deep Venous Thrombosis
Summary: This is a prospective cohort study of 30 patients who are 8-21 years of age with venous thromboembolism (VTE)- either lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).
What are the Latest Advances for Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis?
Evidence-based research and prognosis of novel coagulation factor Ⅺ inhibitors in venous thromboembolism.
Summary: Evidence-based research and prognosis of novel coagulation factor Ⅺ inhibitors in venous thromboembolism.
Acute femoral artery occlusion in a male with Duhring disease and COVID-19 pneumonia treated with baricitinib.
Summary: Acute femoral artery occlusion in a male with Duhring disease and COVID-19 pneumonia treated with baricitinib.
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Efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of schistosomiasis-induced portal hypertension: a retrospective case series.
Summary: Efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of schistosomiasis-induced portal hypertension: a retrospective case series.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: April 29, 2022
Published By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Cloud A, Dussel JN, Webster-Lake C, Indes J. Mesenteric ischemia. In: Yeo CJ, ed. Shackelford's Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 87.

Feuerstadt P, Brandt LJ. Intestinal ischemia. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 118.

Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 82.