Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a rapid heart rate. It occurs when too many signals (electrical impulses) are sent from the upper heart (atria) to the lower heart (ventricles).
Chaotic atrial tachycardia
The human heart gives off electrical impulses, or signals, which tell it to beat. Normally, these signals begin in an area of the upper right chamber called the sinoatrial node (sinus node or SA node). This node is considered the heart's "natural pacemaker." It helps control the heartbeat. When the heart detects a signal, it contracts (or beats).
The normal heart rate in adults is about 60 to 100 beats per minute. The normal heart rate is faster in children.
In MAT, many locations in the atria fire signals at the same time. Too many signals lead to a rapid heart rate. It most often ranges between 100 to 130 beats per minute or more in adults. The rapid heart rate causes the heart to work too hard and not move blood efficiently. If the heartbeat is very fast, there is less time for the heart chamber to fill with blood between beats. Therefore, not enough blood is pumped to the brain and the rest of the body with each contraction.
MAT is most common in people age 50 and over. It is often seen in people with conditions that lower the amount of oxygen in the blood. These conditions include:
You may be at higher risk for MAT if you have:
When the heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute, the arrhythmia is called "wandering atrial pacemaker."
Some people may have no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they can include:
Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:
If you have a condition that can lead to MAT, that condition should be treated first.
Treatment for MAT includes:
MAT can be controlled if the condition that causes the rapid heartbeat is treated and controlled.
Complications may include:
Call your health care provider if:
To reduce the risk of developing MAT, treat the disorders that cause it right away.
Olgin JE, Zipes DP. Supraventricular arrhythmias. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 37.
Zimetbaum P. Supraventricular cardiac arrhythmias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 58.
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