Learn About Nephronophthisis

What is the definition of Nephronophthisis?

Nephronophthisis is a disorder that affects the kidneys. It is characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) that impairs kidney function. These abnormalities lead to increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). In addition, affected individuals develop fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, usually in an area known as the corticomedullary region. Another feature of nephronophthisis is a shortage of red blood cells, a condition known as anemia.

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What are the causes of Nephronophthisis?

Nephronophthisis has several genetic causes, which are used to split the condition into distinct types. Nephronophthisis type 1, which is the most common type of the disorder and one cause of juvenile nephronophthisis, results from changes affecting the NPHP1 gene. The proteins produced from NPHP1 and the other genes involved in nephronophthisis are known or suspected to play roles in cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells and are involved in chemical signaling. Cilia are important for the structure and function of many types of cells and tissues, including cells in the kidneys, liver, brain, and the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina).

How prevalent is Nephronophthisis?

Nephronophthisis is found in populations worldwide. It occurs in an estimated 1 in 50,000 newborns in Canada, 1 in 100,000 in Finland, and 1 in 922,000 in the United States. Its incidence in other populations is unknown. Nephronophthisis is the most common genetic cause of ESRD in children and young adults.

Is Nephronophthisis an inherited disorder?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

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What are the latest Nephronophthisis Clinical Trials?
Classification and Functional Stratification of the Patients With Ciliopathy and Identification of Biomarkers to Improve Their Prognosis

Summary: The purpose of the C'IL-LICO RICM study is to develop innovative and transformative diagnostic and prognostic for patients suffering from ciliopathies leading to renal failure. The objectives is to decipher disease mechanisms and highlight signaling pathways altered in at-risk to develop renal failure patient groups and to produce a prognostic biomarker-based kit to predict the evolution of ciliop...

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Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource (Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Core Center (UAB HFRDCC))

Summary: In 2005, The University of Alabama at Birmingham established a NIDDK-funded, interdisciplinary center of excellence in PKD-related research, with specific emphasis on recessive PKD. In the previous Core Center award period, we developed a Core Resource to capture clinical and mutational data for ARPKD patients (Core A: ARPKD Clinical and Genetic Resource, NCT00575705). However, studies in the last...

Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: September 01, 2014Published By: National Institutes of Health

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