Condition 101 About Salmonella Enterocolitis

What is the definition of Salmonella Enterocolitis?

Salmonella enterocolitis is a bacterial infection in the lining of the small intestine that is caused by salmonella bacteria. It is a type of food poisoning.

What are the alternative names for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella

What are the causes for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning. It occurs when you eat food or drink water that contains salmonella bacteria.

The salmonella germs may get into the food you eat in several ways.

You are more likely to get this type of infection if you:

  • Eat foods such as turkey, turkey dressing, chicken, or eggs that have not been cooked well or stored properly
  • Are around family members with a recent salmonella infection
  • Have been in or worked in a hospital, nursing home, or other long-term health facility
  • Have a pet iguana or other lizards, turtles, or snakes (reptiles and amphibians can be carriers of salmonella)
  • Handle live poultry
  • Have a weakened immune system
  • Regularly used medicines that block acid production in the stomach
  • Have Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Used antibiotics in the recent past

What are the symptoms for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

The time between getting infected and having symptoms is 8 to 72 hours. Symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain, cramping, or tenderness
  • Chills
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Muscle pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

What are the current treatments for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

The goal is to make you feel better and avoid dehydration. Dehydration means your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should.

These things may help you feel better if you have diarrhea:

  • Drink 8 to 10 glasses of clear fluids every day. Water is best.
  • Drink at least 1 cup (240 milliliters) of liquid every time you have a loose bowel movement.
  • Eat small meals throughout the day instead of 3 big meals.
  • Eat some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks.
  • Eat some high-potassium foods, such as bananas, potatoes without the skin, and watered-down fruit juices.

If your child has salmonella, it is important to keep them from getting dehydrated. At first, try 1 ounce (2 tablespoons or 30 milliliters) of fluid every 30 to 60 minutes.

  • Infants should continue to breastfeed and receive electrolyte replacement solutions as recommended by your child's provider.
  • You can use an over-the-counter drink, such as Pedialyte or Infalyte. Do not water down these drinks.
  • You can also try Pedialyte freezer pops.
  • Watered-down fruit juice or broth may also help.

Medicines that slow diarrhea are often not given because they may make the infection last longer. If you have severe symptoms, your provider may prescribe antibiotics if you:

  • Have diarrhea more than 9 or 10 times per day
  • Have a high fever
  • Need to be in the hospital

If you take water pills or diuretics, you may need to stop taking them when you have diarrhea. Ask your provider.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

In otherwise healthy people, symptoms should go away in 2 to 5 days, but they may last for 1 to 2 weeks.

People who have been treated for salmonella may continue to shed the bacteria in their stool for months to a year after the infection. Food handlers who carry salmonella in their body can pass the infection to the people who eat the food they have handled.

When should I contact a medical professional for Salmonella Enterocolitis?

Call your provider if:

  • There is blood or pus in your stools.
  • You have diarrhea and are unable to drink fluids due to nausea or vomiting.
  • You have a fever above 101°F (38.3°C) and diarrhea.
  • You have signs of dehydration (thirst, dizziness, lightheadedness).
  • You have recently traveled to a foreign country and developed diarrhea.
  • Your diarrhea does not get better in 5 days, or it gets worse.
  • You have severe abdominal pain.

Call your provider if your child has:

  • A fever above 100.4°F (38°C) and diarrhea
  • Diarrhea that does not get better in 2 days, or it gets worse
  • Been vomiting for more than 12 hours (in a newborn under 3 months, you should call as soon as vomiting or diarrhea begin)
  • Reduced urine output, sunken eyes, sticky or dry mouth, or no tears when crying

How do I prevent Salmonella Enterocolitis?

Learning how to prevent food poisoning can reduce the risk for this infection. Follow these safety measures:

  • Properly handle and store foods.
  • Wash your hands when handling eggs, poultry, and other foods.
  • If you own a reptile, wear gloves when handling the animal or its feces because salmonella can easily pass to humans.
Salmonella
Digestive
Digestive

REFERENCES

Crump JA. Salmonella infections (including enteric fever). In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 292.

Kotloff KL. Acute gastroenteritis in children. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 366.

Lima AAM, Warren CA, Guerrant RL. Acute dysentery syndromes (diarrhea with fever). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 99.

Melia JMP, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 110.

Top Global Doctors For Salmonella Enterocolitis

Latest Advances On Salmonella Enterocolitis

  • Condition: Infected Native Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylodiscitis in Elderly Septic Man
  • Journal: BMJ case reports
  • Treatment Used: Percutaneous Endovascular Aneurysm Repair and Antibiotics
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes an elderly man with sepsis with an infected native aortic aneurysm with spondylodiscitis (inflamed spinal discs) treated with percutaneous endovascular aneurysm repair and antibiotics.
  • Condition: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and Septicemia in Child with Chronic Granuloma Disease (CGD)
  • Journal: BMC pediatrics
  • Treatment Used: Methylprednisolone
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a three-year-old boy with chronic granuloma disease (CGD) who developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (severe inflammatory disease; HLH) resulting from a cytokine storm triggered by septicemia treated with methylprednisolone.

Clinical Trials For Salmonella Enterocolitis

Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Phase: Early Phase 1
  • Intervention Type: Dietary Supplement, Biological
  • Participants: 60
  • Start Date: October 30, 2021
WHNRC (Western Human Nutrition Research Center) Fiber Intervention Study
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Enrolling by invitation
  • Phase: N/A
  • Intervention Type: Device, Behavioral
  • Participants: 250
  • Start Date: March 1, 2021
The Health and Behavioural Impact of Implementing SAFEWATER Systems for Drinking Water Disinfection Within Rural Communities in Colombia and Mexico; Mexico