What is the definition of Secondary Parkinsonism?

Secondary parkinsonism is when symptoms similar to Parkinson disease are caused by certain medicines, a different nervous system disorder, or another illness.

Parkinsonism refers to any condition that involves the types of movement problems seen in Parkinson disease. These problems include tremors, slow movement, and stiffness of the arms and legs.

What are the alternative names for Secondary Parkinsonism?

Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease

What are the causes for Secondary Parkinsonism?

Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by health problems, including:

  • Brain injury
  • Diffuse Lewy body disease (a type of dementia)
  • Encephalitis
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple system atrophy
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Stroke
  • Wilson disease

Other causes of secondary parkinsonism include:

  • Brain damage caused by anesthesia drugs (such as during surgery)
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Certain medicines used to treat mental disorders or nausea (metoclopramide and prochlorperazine)
  • Mercury poisoning and other chemical poisonings
  • Overdoses of narcotics
  • MPTP (a contaminant in some street drugs)

There have been rare cases of secondary parkinsonism among IV drug users who injected a substance called MPTP, which can be produced when making a form of heroin.

What are the symptoms for Secondary Parkinsonism?

Common symptoms include:

  • Decrease in facial expressions
  • Difficulty starting and controlling movement
  • Loss or weakness of movement (paralysis)
  • Soft voice
  • Stiffness of the trunk, arms, or legs
  • Tremor

Confusion and memory loss may be likely in secondary parkinsonism. This is because many diseases that cause secondary parkinsonism also lead to dementia.

What are the current treatments for Secondary Parkinsonism?

If the condition is caused by a medicine, the provider may recommend changing or stopping the medicine.

Treating underlying conditions, such as stroke or infections, can reduce symptoms or prevent the condition from getting worse.

If symptoms make it hard to do everyday activities, the provider may recommend medicine. Medicines used to treat this condition can cause severe side effects. It is important to see the provider for check-ups. Secondary parkinsonism tends to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Secondary Parkinsonism?

Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Some brain problems, such as Lewy body disease, are not reversible.

What are the possible complications for Secondary Parkinsonism?

This condition may lead to these problems:

  • Difficulty doing daily activities
  • Difficulty swallowing (eating)
  • Disability (varying degrees)
  • Injuries from falls
  • Side effects of medicines used to treat the condition

Side effects from loss of strength (debilitation):

  • Breathing food, fluid, or mucus into the lungs (aspiration)
  • Blood clot in a deep vein (deep vein thrombosis)
  • Malnutrition

When should I contact a medical professional for Secondary Parkinsonism?

Call the provider if:

  • Symptoms of secondary parkinsonism develop, come back, or get worse.
  • New symptoms appear, including confusion and movements that cannot be controlled.
  • You are unable to care for the person at home after treatment starts.

How do I prevent Secondary Parkinsonism?

Treating conditions that cause secondary parkinsonism may decrease the risk.

People taking medicines that can cause secondary parkinsonism should be carefully monitored by the provider to prevent the condition from developing.

Central

REFERENCES

Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Lim SY, et al; Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee. International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society evidence-based medicine review: update on treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2018;33(8):1248-1266. PMID: 29570866 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29570866/.

Jankovic J. Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 96.

Okun MS, Lang AE. Parkinsonism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 381.

Tate J. Parkinson disease. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2020. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2020: 721-725.

  • Condition: Mentally Ill Patients
  • Journal: PloS one
  • Treatment Used: Psychotropic Drugs
  • Number of Patients: 410
  • Published —
This study determined the magnitude and factors associated with psychotropic drug-induced parkinsonism (tremors) and akathisia (agitation) among mentally ill patients.
  • Condition: Rotenone-induced Parkison's disease.
  • Journal: Life sciences
  • Treatment Used: HSP70
  • Number of Patients: 0
  • Published —
This study evaluated the potential HSP70 against neuroinflammation in patients with rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease.
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Phase: N/A
  • Intervention Type: Dietary Supplement
  • Participants: 80
  • Start Date: February 3, 2020
The Effect of Hericium Erinaceus Mycelium in Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Phase: Phase 2
  • Intervention Type: Drug
  • Participants: 15
  • Start Date: April 4, 2019
The Effect of Adrenergic Blocker Therapy on Cardiac and Striatal Transporter Uptake in Pre-Motor and Symptomatic Parkinson's Disease