Learn About Sotos Syndrome

What is the definition of Sotos Syndrome?

Sotos syndrome is a disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, overgrowth in childhood, and learning disabilities or delayed development of mental and movement abilities. Characteristic facial features include a long, narrow face; a high forehead; flushed (reddened) cheeks; and a small, pointed chin. In addition, the outside corners of the eyes may point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures). This facial appearance is most notable in early childhood. Affected infants and children tend to grow quickly; they are significantly taller than their siblings and peers and have an unusually large head. However, adult height is usually in the normal range.

People with Sotos syndrome often have intellectual disability, and most also have behavioral problems. Frequent behavioral issues include autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), phobias, obsessions and compulsions, tantrums, and impulsive behaviors. Problems with speech and language are also common. Affected individuals often have a stutter, a monotone voice, and problems with sound production. Additionally, weak muscle tone (hypotonia) may delay other aspects of early development, particularly motor skills such as sitting and crawling.

Other signs and symptoms of Sotos syndrome can include an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), seizures, heart or kidney defects, hearing loss, and problems with vision. Some infants with this disorder experience yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) and poor feeding.

A small percentage of people with Sotos syndrome have developed cancer, most often in childhood, but no single form of cancer occurs most frequently with this condition. It remains uncertain whether Sotos syndrome increases the risk of specific types of cancer. If people with this disorder have an increased cancer risk, it is only slightly greater than that of the general population.

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What are the causes of Sotos Syndrome?

Mutations in the NSD1 gene are the primary cause of Sotos syndrome, accounting for up to 90 percent of cases. Other genetic causes of this condition have not been identified.

The NSD1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that functions as a histone methyltransferase. Histone methyltransferases are enzymes that modify structural proteins called histones, which attach (bind) to DNA and give chromosomes their shape. By adding a molecule called a methyl group to histones (a process called methylation), histone methyltransferases regulate the activity of certain genes and can turn them on and off as needed. The NSD1 protein controls the activity of genes involved in normal growth and development, although most of these genes have not been identified.

Genetic changes involving the NSD1 gene prevent one copy of the gene from producing any functional protein. Research suggests that a reduced amount of NSD1 protein disrupts the normal activity of genes involved in growth and development. However, it remains unclear exactly how a shortage of this protein during development leads to overgrowth, learning disabilities, and the other features of Sotos syndrome.

How prevalent is Sotos Syndrome?

Sotos syndrome is reported to occur in 1 in 10,000 to 14,000 newborns. Because many of the features of Sotos syndrome can be attributed to other conditions, many cases of this disorder are likely not properly diagnosed, so the true incidence may be closer to 1 in 5,000.

Is Sotos Syndrome an inherited disorder?

About 95 percent of Sotos syndrome cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Most of these cases result from new (de novo) mutations involving the NSD1 gene.

A few families have been described with more than one affected family member. These cases helped researchers determine that Sotos syndrome has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Autosomal dominant inheritance means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.

Who are the top Sotos Syndrome Local Doctors?
Highly rated in

St George's University Of London

London, ENG, GB 

Katrina Brown-Tatton is in London, United Kingdom. Brown-Tatton is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Sotos Syndrome. She is also highly rated in 10 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Sotos Syndrome, Weaver Syndrome, West Syndrome, and Gigantism.

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Tavistock And Portman NHS Foundation Trust

London, ENG, GB 

Chloe Lane is in London, United Kingdom. Lane is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Sotos Syndrome. She is also highly rated in 2 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Sotos Syndrome, Gigantism, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Russell-Silver Dwarfism.

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Highly rated in

OHSU Primary Care Clinic At South Waterfront

Portland, OR 

Maria Fleseriu is an Endocrinologist in Portland, Oregon. Dr. Fleseriu has been practicing medicine for over 29 years and is rated as a Distinguished doctor by MediFind in the treatment of Sotos Syndrome. She is also highly rated in 19 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Acromegaly, Hypertrichosis-Acromegaloid Facial Appearance Syndrome, Acromegaloid Facial Appearance Syndrome, and Pituitary Tumor. She is board certified in Endocrinology and licensed to treat patients in Oregon. Dr. Fleseriu is currently accepting new patients.

What are the latest Sotos Syndrome Clinical Trials?
Body Representation, Neuropsychological Profile and Socio-emotional Development in Children With Overgrowth Syndromes, With a Specific Focus on Functional Assessment of Patients With Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome and Sotos Syndrome
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What are the Latest Advances for Sotos Syndrome?

There is no recent research available for this condition. Please check back because thousands of new papers are published every week and we strive to find and display the most recent relevant research as soon as it is available.