Learn About Staphylococcal Meningitis

What is the definition of Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause meningitis. The staphylococcal bacteria are one type of bacteria that cause meningitis.

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What are the alternative names for Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Staphylococcal meningitis

What are the causes of Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops as a complication of surgery or as an infection that spreads through the blood from another site.

Risk factors include:

  • Infections of heart valves
  • Past infection of the brain
  • Past meningitis due to spinal fluid shunts
  • Recent brain surgery
  • The presence of a spinal fluid shunt
  • Trauma
What are the symptoms of Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Symptoms may come on quickly, and include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Mental status changes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Severe headache
  • Stiff neck

Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:

  • Agitation
  • Bulging fontanelles in infants
  • Decreased alertness
  • Poor feeding or irritability in children
  • Rapid breathing
  • Unusual posture, with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos)
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What are the current treatments for Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Antibiotics will be started as soon as possible. Vancomycin is the first choice for suspected staphylococcal meningitis. Nafcillin is used when tests show that the bacteria are sensitive to this antibiotic.

Often, treatment will include a search for, and removal of, possible sources of bacteria in the body. These include shunts or artificial heart valves.

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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Early treatment improves the outcome. However, some people do not survive. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk for death.

Staphylococcal meningitis often improves more quickly, with fewer complications, if the source of the infection is removed. The source may include shunts, hardware in joints, or artificial heart valves.

What are the possible complications of Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Long-term complications may include:

  • Brain damage
  • Buildup of fluid between the skull and brain (subdural effusion)
  • Buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling (hydrocephalus)
  • Hearing loss
  • Seizures
  • Staph infection in another area of the body
When should I contact a medical professional for Staphylococcal Meningitis?

Call 911 or the local emergency number or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:

  • Feeding problems
  • High-pitched cry
  • Irritability
  • Persistent, unexplained fever

Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.

How do I prevent Staphylococcal Meningitis?

In high-risk people, taking antibiotics before diagnostic or surgical procedures may help reduce the risk. Discuss this with your doctor.

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
CSF cell count
What are the latest Staphylococcal Meningitis Clinical Trials?
Short Intervention and Measurement of Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid in Tuberculosis Meningitis: a Pharmacokinetics and Safety/Tolerability Study
Summary: Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe manifestation of TB, resulting in death or neurological disability in up to 50% of affected patients, despite antibacterial treatment. This TBM treatment follows the model for pulmonary TB by using the same first-line TB drugs (a combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) and the same dosing guidelines, although it is known t...
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What are the Latest Advances for Staphylococcal Meningitis?
Treatment of Severe Japanese Encephalitis Complicated With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Guillain-Barré Syndrome With Protein A Immunoadsorption: A Case Report.
Summary: Treatment of Severe Japanese Encephalitis Complicated With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Guillain-Barré Syndrome With Protein A Immunoadsorption: A Case Report.
PERINATAL INFECTIONS IN UKRAINE: RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER STUDY.
Summary: PERINATAL INFECTIONS IN UKRAINE: RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER STUDY.
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Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 deficiency: a case report and literature review.
Summary: Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 deficiency: a case report and literature review.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: October 25, 2020
Published By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Bacterial meningitis. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html. Updated August 6, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2020.

Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 384.

Hasbun R, Van de Beek D, Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR. Acute meningitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 87.