Status epilepticus is considered to be a medical emergency and requires urgent treatment to prevent permanent brain damage or death.
The main treatments for status epilepticus are anticonvulsant drugs and drugs to prevent seizures, which include acetazolamide, carbamazepine, clonazepam, corticotrophin, corticosteroids, Diastat (diazepam suppository rectal gel), ethosuximide (Zarontin), felbamate (Felbatol), fosphenytoin sodium (cerebyx), lamotrigine (Lamictal), lorazepam, Neurontin (gabapentin), paraldehyde, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate (Topamax), trimethadione, valproic acid.
Depending on the cause, such as a brain tumor or drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, some patients with status epilepticus may need surgery after first trying medications to stop the seizures.
During a seizure characterized by status epilepticus (five minutes or longer), emergency assistance should be called immediately, while individuals experiencing an epileptic seizure should be protected from injury by removing any sharp or hard objects close by, loosening tight clothing, and placing a flat, soft object under the head. Do not attempt to restrain the individual. If possible, the individual experiencing a seizure should be turned on their side with something soft and flat placed between the teeth. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be necessary if the individual stops breathing after a seizure has ended. Oxygen may be administered by health professionals. After the seizure has ended, the individual should be allowed to sleep while awaiting emergency services.