Condition 101 About Subacute Combined Degeneration

What is the definition of Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a disorder of the spine, brain, and nerves. It involves weakness, abnormal sensations, mental problems, and vision difficulties.

What are the alternative names for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord; SCD

What are the causes for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

SCD is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. It mainly affects the spinal cord. But its effects on the brain and the peripheral (body) nerves are the reason for the term "combined." At first, the nerve covering (myelin sheath) is damaged. Later, the entire nerve cell is affected.

Doctors do not know exactly how a lack of vitamin B12 damages the nerves. It is possible that the lack of this vitamin causes abnormal fatty acids to form around cells and nerves.

People are at high risk for this condition if vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed from their intestine or if they have:

  • Pernicious anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells
  • Disorders of the small intestine, including Crohn disease
  • Problems absorbing nutrients, which can occur after gastrointestinal surgery

What are the symptoms for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Symptoms include:

  • Abnormal sensations (tingling and numbness)
  • Weakness of the legs, arms, or other areas

These symptoms slowly get worse and are usually felt on both sides of the body.

As the disease worsens, symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Clumsiness, stiff or awkward movements
  • Change in mental state, such as memory problems, irritability, apathy, confusion, or dementia
  • Decreased vision
  • Depression
  • Sleepiness
  • Unsteady gait and loss of balance
  • Falls due to poor balance

What are the current treatments for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Vitamin B12 is given, usually by injection into a muscle. Injections are often given once a day for a week, then weekly for about 1 month, and then monthly. Vitamin B12 supplements, either by injection or high-dose pills, must continue throughout life to prevent symptoms from returning.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Early treatment improves the chance of a good outcome.

How well a person does depends on how long they had symptoms before receiving treatment. If treatment is received within a few weeks, complete recovery may be expected. If treatment is delayed for longer than 1 or 2 months, full recovery may not be possible.

Untreated, SCD results in continued and permanent damage to the nervous system.

When should I contact a medical professional for Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Call your provider if abnormal sensations, muscle weakness, or other symptoms of SCD develop. This is particularly important if you or a family member has had pernicious anemia or other risk factors.

How do I prevent Subacute Combined Degeneration?

Some vegetarian diets, especially vegan, may be low in vitamin B12. Taking a supplement can help prevent SCD.



Pytel P, Anthony DC. Peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 27.

So YT. Deficiency diseases of the nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 85.

Top Global Doctors For Subacute Combined Degeneration

Latest Advances On Subacute Combined Degeneration

  • Condition: Glomerulonephritis
  • Journal: Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • Treatment Used: Tripterygium Glycoside Tablet
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report discusses a patient who developed subacute combined degeneration (SCD) after long-term use of tripterygium glycoside tablets in the treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Clinical Trials For Subacute Combined Degeneration

There are no recent clinical trials available for this condition. Please check back because new trials are being conducted frequently.