Learn About Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

What is the definition of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs in the part of the body's largest artery (the aorta) that passes through the chest.

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What are the alternative names for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

Aortic aneurysm - thoracic; Syphilitic aneurysm; Aneurysm - thoracic aortic

What are the causes of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition is more common in people with high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who smoke.

Other risk factors for a thoracic aneurysm include:

  • Changes caused by age
  • Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Inflammation of the aorta
  • Injury from falls or motor vehicle accidents
  • Syphilis
What are the symptoms of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

Aneurysms develop slowly over many years. Most people have no symptoms until the aneurysm begins to leak or expand.

Symptoms often begin suddenly when:

  • The aneurysm grows quickly.
  • The aneurysm tears open (called a rupture).
  • Blood leaks along the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection).

If the aneurysm presses on nearby structures, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Hoarseness
  • Swallowing problems
  • High-pitched breathing (stridor)
  • Swelling in the neck

Other symptoms may include:

  • Chest or upper back pain
  • Clammy skin
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Sense of impending doom
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What are the current treatments for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

There is a risk that the aneurysm may open up (rupture) if you do not have surgery to repair it.

The treatment depends on the location of the aneurysm. The aorta is made of three parts:

  • The first part moves upward toward the head. It is called the ascending aorta.
  • The middle part is curved. It is called the aortic arch.
  • The last part moves downward, toward the feet. It is called the descending aorta.

For people with aneurysms of the ascending aorta or aortic arch:

  • Surgery to replace the aorta is recommended if an aneurysm is larger than 5 to 6 centimeters (approximately 2 inches).
  • A cut is made in the middle of the breast bone (sternum).
  • The aorta is replaced with a plastic or fabric graft.
  • This is major surgery that requires a heart-lung machine.

For people with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta:

  • Major surgery is done to replace the aorta with a fabric graft if the aneurysm is larger than 6 centimeters (2.3 inches).
  • This surgery is done through a cut on the left side of the chest, which may reach to the abdomen.
  • Endovascular stenting is a less invasive option. A stent is a tiny metal or plastic tube that is used to hold an artery open. Stents can be placed into the body without cutting the chest. However, not all people with descending thoracic aneurysms are candidates for stenting.
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What is the outlook (prognosis) for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

The long-term outlook for people with thoracic aortic aneurysm depends on other medical problems, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. These problems may have caused or contributed to the condition.

What are the possible complications of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

Serious complications after aortic surgery can include:

  • Bleeding
  • Graft infection
  • Heart attack
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Kidney damage
  • Paralysis
  • Stroke

Death soon after the operation occurs in 5% to 10% of people.

Complications after aneurysm stenting include damage to the blood vessels supplying the leg, which may require another operation.

When should I contact a medical professional for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

Contact your health care provider if you have:

  • A family history of connective tissue disorders (such as Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome)
  • Chest or back discomfort
How do I prevent Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?

To prevent atherosclerosis:

  • Control your blood pressure and blood lipid levels.
  • DO NOT smoke.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
Aortic aneurysm
Aortic rupture - chest X-ray
What are the latest Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Trials?
Cryoablation of Intercostal Nerves for Better Control of Postoperative Pain After Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Open Surgery - A Physician-initiated, International, Multicentre, Prospective, Observational Registry of Patients Undergoing Open Thoracic (TAA) and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms Repair (TAAA) Using Cryoablation of Intercostal Nerves to Improve Postoperative Pain Control. (Cryo Registry)

Summary: The purpose of the registry is to evaluate the peri-operative and short- term outcomes of intercostal nerves cryoablation for post-operative pain control after open thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms repair. The cryoablation procedure is one of the opportunities for pain control after thoracotomy. So, it is routinely performed in major several centers in aortic surgery around the world...

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Endovascular Exclusion of Thoracoabdominal and/or Paravisceral Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Summary: This is a study to assess the safety and effectiveness of endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal (TAAA) and paravisceral abdominal (PVAAA) aortic aneurysms. The investigational operation involves placing a stent-graft over the aortic aneurysm.

What are the Latest Advances for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?
Intracranial stenting as a bail-out option for posthemorrhagic cerebral vasospasm: a single-center experience with long-term follow-up.
A rare case of posttraumatic aortic rupture, treated with an endovascular stent graft implantation and complicated with esophageal rupture.
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Outcomes of valve-sparing surgery in heritable aortic disorders: results from the AVIATOR registry.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: May 10, 2022
Published By: Deepak Sudheendra, MD, MHCI, RPVI, FSIR, Founder and CEO, 360 Vascular Institute, with an expertise in Vascular Interventional Radiology & Surgical Critical Care, Columbus, OH. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Acher CW, Wynn M. Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms: open surgical treatment. In: Sidawy AN, Perler BA, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 79.

Braverman AC, Schermerhorn M. Diseases of the aorta. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 63.

Lederle FA. Diseases of the aorta. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 69.

Singh MJ, Makaroun MS. Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms: endovascular treatment. In: Sidawy AN, Perler BA, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 80.