Learn About Typhoid Fever

What is the definition of Typhoid Fever?

Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash. It is most commonly caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi (S typhi).

Save information for later
Sign Up
What are the alternative names for Typhoid Fever?

Enteric fever

What are the causes of Typhoid Fever?

S typhi is spread through contaminated food, drink, or water. If you eat or drink something that is contaminated with the bacteria, the bacteria enter your body. They travel into your intestines, and then into your blood. In the blood, they travel to your lymph nodes, gallbladder, liver, spleen, and other parts of the body.

Some people become carriers of S typhi and continue to release the bacteria in their stools for years, spreading the disease.

Typhoid fever is common in developing countries. Most cases in the United States are brought in from other countries where typhoid fever is common.

What are the symptoms of Typhoid Fever?

Early symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, and abdominal pain. High fever (103°F, or 39.5°C) or higher and severe diarrhea occur as the disease gets worse.

Some people develop a rash called "rose spots," which are small red spots on the abdomen and chest.

Other symptoms that occur include:

  • Bloody stools
  • Chills
  • Agitation, confusion, delirium, seeing or hearing things that are not there (hallucinations)
  • Difficulty paying attention (attention deficit)
  • Nosebleeds
  • Severe fatigue
  • Slow, sluggish, weak feeling
Not sure about your diagnosis?
Check Your Symptoms
What are the current treatments for Typhoid Fever?

Fluids and electrolytes may be given by IV (into a vein) or you may be asked to drink water with electrolyte packets.

Antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the world, so your provider will check current recommendations before choosing an antibiotic.

Who are the top Typhoid Fever Local Doctors?
Elite
Highly rated in
29
conditions

World Health Organization

Oxford, GB 

Andrew Pollard is in Oxford, United Kingdom. Pollard is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Typhoid Fever. He is also highly rated in 29 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Typhoid Fever, Salmonella Enterocolitis, Meningitis, and Typhus.

Elite
Highly rated in
4
conditions

Aga Khan University

Karachi, SD, PK 

Farah Qamar is in Karachi, Pakistan. Qamar is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Typhoid Fever. She is also highly rated in 4 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Typhoid Fever, Salmonella Enterocolitis, Typhus, and Diarrhea.

 
 
 
 
Learn about our expert tiers
Learn more
Elite
Highly rated in
9
conditions

University Of Oxford

Patan Hospital 
Kathmandu, CR, NP 

Buddha Basnyat is in Kathmandu, Nepal. Basnyat is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Typhoid Fever. They are also highly rated in 9 other conditions, according to our data. Their top areas of expertise are Typhoid Fever, Salmonella Enterocolitis, Typhus, and Acute Mountain Sickness.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for Typhoid Fever?

Symptoms usually improve in 2 to 4 weeks with treatment. The outcome is likely to be good with early treatment, but becomes poor if complications develop.

Symptoms may return if the treatment has not completely cured the infection.

What are the possible complications of Typhoid Fever?

Health problems that may develop include:

  • Intestinal hemorrhage (severe GI bleeding)
  • Intestinal perforation
  • Kidney failure
  • Peritonitis
When should I contact a medical professional for Typhoid Fever?

Contact your provider if you have any of the following:

  • You know you have been exposed to someone who has typhoid fever
  • You have been in an area where there are people who have typhoid fever and you develop symptoms of typhoid fever
  • You have had typhoid fever and the symptoms return
  • You develop severe abdominal pain, decreased urine output, or other new symptoms
How do I prevent Typhoid Fever?

A vaccine is recommended for travel outside of the United States to places where there is typhoid fever. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website has information about where typhoid fever is common -- www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/index.html. Ask your provider if you should bring electrolyte packets in case you get sick.

When traveling, drink only boiled or bottled water and eat well-cooked food. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating.

Water treatment, waste disposal, and protecting the food supply from contamination are important public health measures. Carriers of typhoid must not be allowed to work as food handlers.

Salmonella typhi organism
Digestive system organs
What are the latest Typhoid Fever Clinical Trials?
Azithromycin and Cefixime Combination Versus Azithromycin Alone for the Out-patient Treatment of Clinically Suspected or Confirmed Uncomplicated Typhoid Fever in South Asia; a Randomised Controlled Trial
Match to trials
Find the right clinical trials for you in under a minute
Get started
The Health and Behavioural Impact of Implementing SAFEWATER Systems for Drinking Water Disinfection Within Rural Communities in Colombia and Mexico; Colombia.
What are the Latest Advances for Typhoid Fever?
Salmonella Paratyphi A infection: implications for public health management of extra-intestinal presentations - case study of a neck abscess.
Spectrum of paediatric surgical cases in a private mission teaching hospital in Nigeria.
Tired of the same old research?
Check Latest Advances
Prevalence and awareness of mode of transmission of typhoid fever in patients diagnosed with Salmonella typhi and paratyphi infections at the Saint Elisabeth General Hospital Shisong, Bui Division, Cameroon.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date: June 20, 2021
Published By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Andrews JR, Harris JB, Ryan ET. Typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and typhoidal fevers. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 100.

Melia JMP, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 110.