Learn About West Nile Virus Infection

What is the definition of West Nile Virus Infection?

West Nile virus is a viral disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe.

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What are the alternative names for West Nile Virus Infection?

Encephalitis - West Nile; Meningitis - West Nile

What are the causes of West Nile Virus Infection?

West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States in the summer of 1999 in New York. Since then, the virus has spread throughout the US.

Researchers believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person.

Mosquitoes carry the highest amounts of the virus in the early fall, which is why more people get the disease in late August to early September. As the weather becomes colder and mosquitoes die off, there are fewer cases of the disease.

Although many people are bitten by mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus, most do not know they have been infected.

Risk factors for developing a more severe form of West Nile virus include:

  • Conditions that weaken the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, and recent chemotherapy
  • Older or very young age
  • Pregnancy

West Nile virus may also be spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. It is possible for an infected mother to spread the virus to her child through breast milk.

What are the symptoms of West Nile Virus Infection?

Symptoms may occur 1 to 14 days after becoming infected. Mild disease, generally called West Nile fever, may cause some or all of the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever, headache, and sore throat
  • Lack of appetite
  • Muscle aches
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Swollen lymph nodes

These symptoms usually last for 3 to 6 days, but may last a month.

More severe forms of disease are called West Nile encephalitis or West Nile meningitis, depending on what part of the body is affected. The following symptoms can occur, and need prompt attention:

  • Confusion or change in ability to think clearly
  • Loss of consciousness or coma
  • Muscle weakness
  • Stiff neck
  • Weakness of one arm or leg
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What are the current treatments for West Nile Virus Infection?

Because this illness is not caused by bacteria, antibiotics do not treat West Nile virus infection. Supportive care may help decrease the risk of developing complications in severe illness.

Who are the top West Nile Virus Infection Local Doctors?
Elite
Highly rated in
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Infectious Disease

Johns Hopkins Health System

The Johns Hopkins Hospital

1800 Orleans St 
Baltimore, MD 21287

Anna Durbin is an Infectious Disease doctor in Baltimore, Maryland. Dr. Durbin has been practicing medicine for over 35 years and is rated as an Elite doctor by MediFind in the treatment of West Nile Virus Infection. She is also highly rated in 8 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Dengue Fever, Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, West Nile Virus Infection, and Yellow Fever. She is board certified in Infectious Disease and Internal Medicine and licensed to treat patients in Maryland. Dr. Durbin is currently accepting new patients.

Elite
Highly rated in
13
conditions

Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki

School Of Medicine 
Thessaloniki, ESYE12, GR 

Anna Papa is in Thessaloniki, Greece. Papa is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of West Nile Virus Infection. She is also highly rated in 13 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are West Nile Virus Infection, Encephalitis, Arbovirosis, and Viral Hemorrhagic Fever.

 
 
 
 
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Elite
Highly rated in
10
conditions

University Of Padova

Department Of Molecular Medicine 
Padova, IT 

Luisa Barzon is in Padova, Italy. Barzon is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of West Nile Virus Infection. She is also highly rated in 10 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are West Nile Virus Infection, Myelitis, Encephalitis, and Zika Virus Disease.

What is the outlook (prognosis) for West Nile Virus Infection?

People with mild West Nile virus infection do well after treatment.

For those with severe infection, the outlook is more uncertain. West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. One in ten people with brain inflammation do not survive.

What are the possible complications of West Nile Virus Infection?

Complications from mild West Nile virus infection are very rare.

Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include:

  • Brain damage
  • Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio)
  • Death
When should I contact a medical professional for West Nile Virus Infection?

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of West Nile virus infection, particularly if you may have had contact with mosquitoes. If you are very sick, go to an emergency room.

There is no treatment to avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop a serious West Nile infection.

How do I prevent West Nile Virus Infection?

The best way to prevent West Nile virus infection is to avoid mosquito bites:

  • Use mosquito-repellant products containing DEET
  • Wear long sleeves and pants
  • Drain pools of standing water, such as trash bins and plant saucers (mosquitos breed in stagnant water)

Community spraying for mosquitoes may also reduce mosquito breeding.

Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin
Mosquito, pupa
Mosquito egg raft
Mosquito, adult
Meninges of the brain
What are the latest West Nile Virus Infection Clinical Trials?
Descriptive and Prognostic Study of Arbovirus Infections in France, Based on a Hospital Cohort of Children and Adults With Suspected Arbovirose.
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What are the Latest Advances for West Nile Virus Infection?
West nile virus infection: One-Year postkidney transplant.
Case Report: Neurologic Presentation of West Nile Virus: Difficult Diagnosis.
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Drug-Screening Strategies for Inhibition of Virus-Induced Neuronal Cell Death.
Who are the sources who wrote this article ?

Published Date : December 24, 2020
Published By : Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

What are the references for this article ?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. West Nile virus. www.cdc.gov/westnile/index.html. Updated June 3, 2020. Accessed March 8, 2021.

Naides SJ. Arboviruses causing fever and rash syndromes. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 358.

Thomas SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, Usutu encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, Zika). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 153.