Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by mosquitoes.
Tropical hemorrhagic fever caused by yellow fever virus
Yellow fever is caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. You can develop this disease if you are bitten by a mosquito infected with this virus.
This disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa.
Anyone can get yellow fever, but older people have a higher risk of severe infection.
If a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms usually develop 3 to 6 days later.
Yellow fever has 3 stages:
Symptoms may include:
There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. Treatment is supportive and focuses on:
Yellow fever can cause severe problems, including internal bleeding. Death is possible.
Complications that may result include:
See a provider at least 10 to 14 days before traveling to an area where yellow fever is common to find out whether you should be vaccinated against the disease.
Tell your provider right away if you or your child develops fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or jaundice, especially if you have traveled to an area where yellow fever is common.
There is an effective vaccine against yellow fever. Ask your provider at least 10 to 14 days before traveling if you should be vaccinated against yellow fever. Some countries require proof of vaccination to gain entry.
If you will be traveling to an area where yellow fever is common:
Published Date: November 23, 2021
Published By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Yellow fever. www.cdc.gov/yellowfever. Updated January 15, 2019. Accessed February 15, 2022.
Endy TP. Viral hemorrhagic fevers. In: Ryan ET, Hill DR, Solomon T, Aronson NE, Endy TP, eds. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 37.
Thomas SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, Usutu encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, Zika). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 153.