Impaired smell is the partial or total loss or abnormal perception of the sense of smell.
Loss of smell; Anosmia; Hyposmia; Parosmia; Dysosmia
The loss of smell can occur with conditions that prevent air from reaching smell receptors located high in the nose, or loss of or injury to the smell receptors. Loss of smell is not serious, but can sometimes be a sign of a nervous system condition.
Temporary loss of the sense of smell is common with colds and nasal allergies, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis). It may occur after a viral illness.
Some loss of smell occurs with aging. In most cases, there is no clear cause, and there is no treatment.
The sense of smell also enhances your ability to taste. Many people who lose their sense of smell also complain that they lose their sense of taste. Most can still tell between salty, sweet, sour, and bitter tastes, which are sensed on the tongue. They may not be able to tell between other flavors. Some spices (such as pepper) may affect the nerves of the face. You may feel rather than smell them.
Loss of smell can be caused by:
Treating the cause of the problem may correct the lost sense of smell. Treatment can include:
Avoid using too many nasal decongestants, which can lead to repeated nasal congestion.
If you lose your sense of smell, you may have changes in taste. Adding highly seasoned foods to your diet can help stimulate the taste sensations that you still have.
Improve your safety at home by using smoke detectors and electric appliances instead of gas appliances. You may not be able to smell gas if there is a leak. Or, install equipment that detects gas fumes in the home. People with smell loss should label when food items were opened to prevent eating spoiled food.
There is no treatment for loss of smell due to aging.
If you have a loss of smell due to a recent upper respiratory infection, be patient. The sense of smell may return to normal without treatment.
Contact your health care provider if:
The provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical history and current symptoms. Questions may include:
The provider will look at and around your nose. Tests that may be performed include:
If the loss of sense of smell is caused by a stuffy nose (nasal congestion), decongestants or antihistamines may be prescribed.
Other treatments for a stuffy nose may include:
Zachary Soler is an Otolaryngologist in Charleston, South Carolina. Dr. Soler has been practicing medicine for over 22 years and is rated as an Elite doctor by MediFind in the treatment of Anosmia. He is also highly rated in 21 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps, Sinusitis, Nasal Polyps, and Anosmia. He is licensed to treat patients in Oregon and South Carolina. Dr. Soler is currently accepting new patients.
Zara Patel is an Otolaryngologist in Palo Alto, California. Dr. Patel has been practicing medicine for over 17 years and is rated as an Elite doctor by MediFind in the treatment of Anosmia. She is also highly rated in 17 other conditions, according to our data. Her top areas of expertise are Anosmia, Sinusitis, Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps, and Pituitary Tumor. She is licensed to treat patients in Georgia, New York, and California. Dr. Patel is currently accepting new patients.
Thomas Hummel is in Dresden, Germany. Hummel is rated as an Elite expert by MediFind in the treatment of Anosmia. He is also highly rated in 13 other conditions, according to our data. His top areas of expertise are Anosmia, Sinusitis, Nasal Polyps, and Varicose Veins.
Published Date : August 31, 2021
Published By : Josef Shargorodsky, MD, MPH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Baloh RW, Jen JC. Smell and taste. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 399.
Whitcroft KL, Hummel T. Olfactory function and dysfunction. In: Flint PW, Francis HW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 36.