Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections.
Encephalitis is a rare condition. It occurs more often in the first year of life and decreases with age. The very young and older adults are more likely to have a severe case.
Encephalitis is most often caused by a virus. Many types of viruses may cause it. Exposure can occur through:
Different viruses occur in different locations. Many cases occur during a certain season.
Encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of more severe cases in all ages, including newborns.
Routine vaccination has greatly reduced encephalitis due to some viruses, including:
Other viruses that cause encephalitis include:
After the virus enters the body, the brain tissue swells. This swelling may destroy nerve cells, and cause bleeding in the brain and brain damage.
Other causes of encephalitis may include:
Some people may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin.
When this infection is not very severe, the symptoms may be similar to those of other illnesses:
Other symptoms include:
Symptoms in newborns and younger infants may not be as easy to recognize:
The goals of treatment are to provide supportive care (rest, nutrition, fluids) to help the body fight the infection, and to relieve symptoms.
Medicines may include:
If brain function is severely affected, physical therapy and speech therapy may be needed after the infection is controlled.
The outcome varies. Some cases are mild and short, and the person fully recovers. Other cases are severe, and permanent problems or death is possible.
The acute phase normally lasts for 1 to 2 weeks. Fever and symptoms gradually or suddenly disappear. Some people may take several months to fully recover.
Permanent brain damage may occur in severe cases of encephalitis. It can affect:
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have:
Children and adults should avoid contact with anyone who has encephalitis.
Controlling mosquitoes (a mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) may reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis.
Children and adults should get routine vaccinations for viruses that can cause encephalitis. People should receive specific vaccines if they are traveling to places such as parts of Asia, where Japanese encephalitis is found.
Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus.
Bloch KC, Glaser CA, Tunkel AR. Encephalitis and myelitis. In: Cohen J, Powderly WG, Opal SM, eds. Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 20.
Bronstein DE, Glaser CA. Encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 36.
Lissauer T, Carroll W. Infection and immunity. In: Lissauer T, Carroll W, eds. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 15.