What is the definition of Noonan Syndrome?

Noonan syndrome is a disease present from birth (congenital) that causes many parts of the body to develop abnormally. In some cases it is passed down through families (inherited).

What are the causes for Noonan Syndrome?

Noonan syndrome is linked to defects in several genes. In general, certain proteins involved in growth and development become overactive as a result of these gene changes.

Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition. This means only one parent has to pass down the nonworking gene for the child to have the syndrome. However, some cases may not be inherited.

What are the symptoms for Noonan Syndrome?

Symptoms include:

  • Delayed puberty
  • Down-slanting or wide-set eyes
  • Hearing loss (varies)
  • Low-set or abnormally shaped ears
  • Mild intellectual disability (only in about 25% of cases)
  • Sagging eyelids (ptosis)
  • Short stature
  • Small penis
  • Undescended testicles
  • Unusual chest shape (most often a sunken chest called pectus excavatum)
  • Webbed and short-appearing neck

What are the current treatments for Noonan Syndrome?

There is no specific treatment. Your provider will suggest treatment to relieve or manage symptoms. Growth hormone has been used successfully to treat short height in some people with Noonan syndrome.

What are the support groups for Noonan Syndrome?

The Noonan Syndrome Foundation is a place where people dealing with this condition can find information and resources.

What are the possible complications for Noonan Syndrome?

Complications may include:

  • Abnormal bleeding or bruising
  • Buildup of fluid in tissues of body (lymphedema, cystic hygroma)
  • Failure to thrive in infants
  • Leukemia and other cancers
  • Low self-esteem
  • Infertility in males if both testes are undescended
  • Problems with the structure of the heart
  • Short height
  • Social problems due to physical symptoms

When should I contact a medical professional for Noonan Syndrome?

This condition may be found during early infant exams. A geneticist is often needed to diagnose Noonan syndrome.

How do I prevent Noonan Syndrome?

Couples with a family history of Noonan syndrome may want to consider genetic counseling before having children.



Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 25.

Madan-Khetarpal S, Arnold G. Genetic disorders and dysmorphic conditions. In: Zitelli BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, eds. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 1.

Mitchell AL. Congenital anomalies. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 30.

  • Condition: Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy due to Noonan Syndrome
  • Journal: Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • Treatment Used: Septal Myectomy
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report describes a patient with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to Noonan syndrome that was treated using septal myectomy.
  • Condition: Double-Chambered Right Ventricle (DCRV) Complicated by Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM) Diagnosed as Noonan Syndrome
  • Journal: ESC heart failure
  • Treatment Used: Pharmacological Therapy and Surgery
  • Number of Patients: 1
  • Published —
This case report discusses a patient with double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) complicated by hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in KRAS mutation-associated Noonan syndrome treated with pharmacological therapy and surgery.
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Recruiting
  • Participants: 500
  • Start Date: July 12, 2021
Clinical, Genetic, and Epidemiologic Study of Children and Adults With RASopathies
Clinical Trial
  • Status: Not yet recruiting
  • Participants: 300
  • Start Date: September 2020
Hematological Anomalies in Children With Rasopathy