What is the definition of AIDS Dysmorphic Syndrome?
AIDS dysmorphic syndrome, also known as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) embryopathy, refers to facial malformations in infants believed to be caused by acquired perinatal (before, during, or after birth) HIV infection; however, researchers are not certain that perinatal infection with the HIV virus is actually the cause, as there may be other causes, such as alcohol or drug use.
What are the symptoms for AIDS Dysmorphic Syndrome?
Symptoms of AIDS dysmorphic syndrome are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, such as a small head (microcephaly), a protruding, box-like forehead, wide or slanted eyes, long eyelid folds, blue sclera (whites of eyes), flattened nasal bridge, large philtrum (groove between nose and lip), and growth retardation. Infants infected with HIV may also experience HIV-associated symptoms, such as recurring opportunistic infections, rashes, hepatitis, kidney or heart failure, pneumonia, lymphomas, and progressive neurological dysfunction.
What are the current treatments for AIDS Dysmorphic Syndrome?
Treatment for AIDS dysmorphic syndrome is individualized and is conducted by a multidisciplinary team, including a pediatric specialist in HIV infection. The craniofacial abnormalities associated with AIDS dysmorphic syndrome may be treated symptomatically. HIV infection in infants with AIDS dysmorphic syndrome may include the use of combined antiretroviral therapies, such as zidovudine (ZDV) with didanosine or lamivudine and a protease inhibitor. Intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, and antibiotics may be administered to prevent opportunistic infections.